Vol 7.22 -Behar 2Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Spanish French AudioÂ Video
(5730) End of the Parsha (and Rashi)(Lev.26:2) "I am the L-rd: Who is faithful to give reward"
and the connection to the statement of R' Meir (Avot 4:10): "if you toil much in Torah, there is much reward to give to you"
Debate in the original supposition (hava amina) that a "slave sold to a gentile" etc.
Explanation of Zohar (Behar 108a) that a Jewish slave is exempt form the "Yoke of the supernal kingdom" according to the explanation of the Alter Rebbe in Tanya (Chap. 41) concerning the acceptance of the Yoke of Heaven and the parable of the the Zohar (ibid) "like that ox that they place a yoke upon"
1. In the Shabbat days between Pesach and Shavuot one learns Pirkei Avot, each Shabbat a Perek.
And since all aspects of Torah are the epitome of precision ( and how much more so, from that which even the aspects of the world are not happenstance, G-d forbid, but with Divine Providence) it is understood that this Perek, which one learns in this specific Shabbat, has a relation also to the Sidra which one reads then.
Of the Mishnayot of this Perek (Perek 4) which has a specific subject that is related to this weekâ€™s Parsha (Parshat Behar) is the Mishnah (4:10):
â€œRabbi Meir would say: Engage minimally in business, and occupy yourself with Torah etc.â€ and the conclusion is â€œif you toil much in Torah, there is much reward to give to you.â€
×¨×‘×™ ×ž××™×¨ ××•×ž×¨, ×”×•×™ ×ž×ž×¢×˜ ×‘×¢×¡×§, ×•×¢×¡×•×§ ×‘×ª×•×¨×” .×•×”×•×™ ×©×¤×œ ×¨×•×— ×‘×¤× ×™ ×›×œ ××“×.×•×× ×‘×˜×œ×ª ×ž×Ÿ ×”×ª×•×¨×”, ×™×© ×œ×š ×‘×˜×œ×™× ×”×¨×‘×” ×›× ×’×“×š. ×•×× ×¢×ž×œ×ª ×‘×ª×•×¨×”, ×™×© ×©×›×¨ ×”×¨×‘×” ×œ×ª×Ÿ ×œ×š
This is similar to the conclusion of the Sidra that states: â€œI am the L-rdâ€ (which means, as Rashi says: â€œfaithful to give rewardâ€ (× ××ž×Ÿ ×œ×©×œ× ×©×›×¨))
The promise of reward for Torah study and the fulfillment of Mitzvot, in general, is found in many of the Sidrot of the Torah and in many Mishnayot (also in tractate Avot). However the innovation which is in the conclusion of this weekâ€™s Sidra, is expressed in that which it states â€œfaithful to give rewardâ€.
The innovation of the verse here, is (not the promise (×¦×•×–××’) that one receives reward for keeping Shabbat and in the fear of the Mikdash, but) that G-d is â€œfaithfulâ€ to recompense and not, to withhold (×¤××¨×ž×™×™×“×Ÿ), G-d forbid, the reward that is due to those that fulfill the required commands.
Similarly, it is also in the conclusion of the aforementioned Mishnah:
Rabbi Meir innovates here that (not that due to oneâ€™s toiling much in Torah, one is due a reward, but) that â€there is much reward to give to you.â€
This means that the person could think:
It is indeed true that he deserves much reward for the great toil. However it is possible (×’×¢×ž××œ×˜) that he will not receive it in full measure, since there does not exist, that much reward to give him â€“ therefore Rabbi Meir stresses that â€œthere is much reward to give to youâ€ - that it exists in greater measure, and therefore the person can be certain that he will receive the â€œmuch rewardâ€.
One must understand:
What is the â€œinnovationâ€
Â·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â (both, in the verse) that G-d is â€œfaithfulâ€ to recompense (×‘××œ×•×™× ×¢×Ÿ) the person that which he deserves, and
Â·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â (also in the Mishnah) that G-d possesses the sufficient â€œmuch rewardâ€ to pay the person, what he deserves?
2. The verse: â€œYou shall keep My Sabbaths, and revere My Sanctuary. I am the L-rdâ€ Is also stated in a previous Sidra, and there Rashi does not comment: â€œfaithful to give rewardâ€ like the verse in our Parsha.
From this it is understood that this forewarning, namely that G-d is â€œfaithful to give rewardâ€ applies only to this verse of â€œYou shall keep My Sabbaths etc.â€ â€“ which comes subsequent to the previous verse â€œYou shall not make idols for yourselvesâ€. And both of these commands were said in relation to a Yid who is â€œsold to a non-Jewâ€.
Regarding Yidden, in general, that just as regarding them, there is no special innovation in the command itself â€“ so too there is also no innovation that G-d has, and will, give the entire reward for carrying out the command.
However, regarding one who is sold to a non-Jew, where the Torah must separately tell him that â€œYou shall not make idols for yourselves - You shall keep My Sabbathsâ€ â€“
because without the command, one could think to himself: â€œSince my master worships idols. . Since my master desecrates the Sabbath, I will also be like him!â€-
there can also be a place to mean that, since he is â€œsold to a non-Jewâ€, therefore there is not much reward to give him for keeping the commands.
Therefore one must say that with the words "I am the L-rdâ€, the verse is intending to stress that even regarding him, G-d is faithful to give reward.
And in the same manner, this is also the innovation of the Mishnah: â€œif you toil much in Torah, there is much reward to give to you.â€
With the words â€œthere is much reward etc.â€ it does not refer to the toil in Torah, in general (for then, there is no innovation). But rather it is in relation to â€œif you toil much in Torahâ€ â€“ meaning from a special category of person that is spoken of in our Mishnah â€“ a business person (×‘×¢×œ ×¢×¡×§).
In the beginning of the Mishnah it states: â€œEngage minimally in business, and occupy yourself with Torahâ€.
This means that even a business person - one who according to Law, may have â€œhis work permanent and his Torah study temporary (×ž×œ××›×ª×• ×§×‘×¢ ××•×Ÿ ×ª×•×¨×ª×• ×¢×¨××™) â€“ must reduce his â€œbusinessâ€ (his personal dealings) and engage in Torah study. For a business person who â€œtoils much in Torahâ€, and who does this within the letter of the law (×œ×¤×’×™× ×ž×©×•×¨×ª ×”×“×™×Ÿ), Rabbi Meir innovates that â€œthere is much reward to give to youâ€.
It is however difficult to understand - and in both cases one could say that the opposite is more logical:
If regarding the keeping of Shabbat etc., by a regular person, meaning by one who is free (×‘×ŸÖ¾ ×—×•×¨×™×Ÿ) and (also) by Torah study of a Torah scholar
(Who are not connected with â€œtoilâ€ â€“ meaning with a separate effort (×‘××ž×™××•× ×’) â€“ not to fool oneself or to do it â€œwith â€œthe Midah of Chassidut and the love of Torahâ€),
it is a simple matter that they have and will receive the full reward â€“ therefore, how much more so is it, in the case when one who is sold to a non-Jew keeps the Shabbat like the Halacha
(Notwithstanding that there is a supposition - in Torah - that â€œSince my master desecrates the Sabbath, I will also be like him!â€)
And (also) when a business person toils â€œmuch in Torahâ€ through reducing his â€œbusinessâ€
(Even though he is not required to do so according to the law) â€“
then it must certainly be simple that they will receive and be certain of the full reward!
How is it, that specifically for them, it is necessary to forewarn that G-d is â€œfaithful to give rewardâ€ and that there is â€œthere is much reward to give to youâ€?
3. One must also understand:
How could there be a supposition that â€œSince my master worships idols I will also be like him!â€?
Regarding the desecration of Shabbat, one could explain that since, according to Torah, he is subjugated to his master, that he is obligated to work for him. And since, regarding his master, there is no aspect of Shabbat, and it is a day like any other day, one could, therefore automatically come to an erroneous conclusion that, the obligation to work is in-force (×’×™×œ×˜×™×§) also on Shabbat.
(and moreover: Since he may (according to his error) and must - work on Shabbat for his master, then the entire obligation of keeping Shabbat is completely broken (× ×¤×§×¢). â€œI will also be like himâ€ â€“ implies that he may desecrate the Shabbat also in a case where it is not related to the work for his master)
One could have a similar reasoning regarding incest (×’×™×œ×•×™ ×¢×¨×™×•×ª):
Since â€œreproducingâ€ (×œ×”×•Â×œ×™×“ ×•×•×œ×“×•×ª) is a part of the service of a servant to his master â€“ which is why it states regarding a Hebrew slave that is sold to a non-Jew that â€œHis master gives him a Canaanite maidservant in order to give birth to servants from herâ€.
Therefore since the Yisroel who is sold to a non-Jew may and must also take a Canaanite maidservant in order to give birth to servants from her, one could conclude that the entire prohibition of incest is broken (those types of incest in which Yidden are distinguished from the Bnei Noach) and therefore just like his master - â€œI will also be like himâ€- he is not precluded from the incest which are permitted to a Ben Noach.
However, idol worship is different, for:
1. Even for his master the prohibition of worshipping idols applies. For this is one of the Seven Noachide Commandments and
2. This is a thing which has no relation whatsoever, with the work done for his master. And since this is so, why should there be a place, which there is not (×•×•×¢×œ×›×¢Ö¾× ×™×˜Ö¾××™×–), to mean that he should also be allowed to worship idols?
4. One could understand this by prefacing that which the Zohar states (in the beginning of this weekâ€™s Parsha) regarding a Hebrew slave that is sold to a Yisroel. That servants are exempt from the â€œyoke of the Supernal Kingdomâ€ (×¢×•×œ ×ž×œ×›×•×ª× ×“×œ×¢×™×œ×) and therefore they are also â€œexempt from Mitzvotâ€.
With this the Zohar explains the meaning of â€œin the seventh (year) he is to go out freeâ€ (×•×‘×©×‘×™×¢×™×ª ×™×¦× ×œ×—×¤×©×™ ×—× ×). For since he is a servant (which before the time of his going free), Â â€œeverything that he does is free" â€“ meaning without the yoke of the kingdom of heavenâ€.
Â This is similar to what it states: â€œWe remember the fish which we ate in Egypt freelyâ€ - that when the Yidden were in servitude in Egypt, they did not have the â€œsupernal yokeâ€ (×¢×•×œ ×“×œ×¢×™×œ×). It was in a manner of â€œfreeâ€ (×—× ×).
This however is not understood:
One could explain that the reason that the Zohar states that slaves are exempt from the â€œyoke of the Supernal Kingdomâ€ - is because they are subject (××•×’×˜×¢×¨×’×¢×•×•××¨×¤×Ÿ) to the yoke of a mortal being. Therefore it is not in the realm that they should also, at the same time, have to (completely) bear the yoke of the kingdom of heaven.
(And this fits with the saying of the Sages that â€œThe ear that heard on Mount Sinai: "ForÂ to MeÂ are the Bnei Yisroel servants, and not servants to servants and he, nevertheless, went ahead and acquired a master for himself (should have his ear pierced!).
For since he makes himself proposed (×¤××¨×©×§×œ××¤×˜) to another â€œmasterâ€ he becomes a â€œservant to servantsâ€ and therefore the Avodat HaShem is (as it were) relieved from him.)
However, when it speaks regarding the fulfillment of Mitzvot in actuality, a Hebrew slave, even one who is sold to a non-Jew, is obligated to fulfill all the Mitzvot. For his statement: â€œSince my master . . I will also be like him!â€- is only a supposition that Torah negates, as it states: â€œthat he should not sayâ€. Also the supposition is just regarding certain Mitzvot (incest, idol worship and the desecration of Shabbat), however not in regard to all the Mitzvot â€“
Therefore what is meaning of the Zoharâ€˜s statement that a Hebrew slave that is sold to a Yisroel is exempt from Mitzvot?!
One must also understand that which the Zohar compares the â€For six years you shall plant your field etc.â€ (which is before the â€œrest for the landâ€œ in the seventh year) to the â€œfor six years he shall serveâ€ of a servant (which is before the â€œin the seventh (year) he is to go out freeâ€).
Seemingly, what is the comparison in this?
Although it is true that the six years, when one is involved with the work of the field, he does not have so much time to be engaged with Torah study and Avodat HaShem like in the seventh year - forÂ the seventh yearÂ will be a â€œrest for the land, aÂ ShabbatÂ forÂ G-dâ€. Nevertheless, even during the six years, the Yid is not subject to any yoke of a mortal â€“ he is not a â€œservant of servantsâ€ - therefore in what regard can he be compared to the case of â€œfor six years he shall serveâ€ which through â€œacquiring a master for himselfâ€, he becomes (as it were) exempt from the yoke of the kingdom of heaven?
5. One can understand this, from the continuation of the Zohar there, where he explains the aspect of the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven with a parable â€“ and the Alter Rebbe cites this is Tanya â€“
â€œJust like that ox on which one first places a yoke in order to make it useful to the world,...so too must a human being first of all submit to the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven. . and if this (submission) is not found in him, holiness cannot rest within him....â€
What, seemingly, is clarified here and explained, through citing this parable of â€œJust like that ox etc.â€?
Especially, since the Alter Rebbe cites this parable in Tanya (even though he omits many of the aspects that are in the Zohar there) - it is understood that with this, an integral aspect, in the aspect of accepting the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven is explained?
The explanation of this is:
The innovation which the Alter Rebbe accomplished in the chapter (Chap. 41) where he cites the parable from the Zohar - and in which itself, he explains it â€“ is
(not just that a Yid must, in general, haveÂ Kaballat Ol Â -Â the acceptance of the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven â€“ for this is simple to understand: Since the root of the 365 Negative Mitzvot is the fear of G-d, it is therefore understood that a Yid is required to have fear â€“ Kaballat Ol - in order that he should fulfill the 365 Negative Mitzvot â€“ but) - even
â€œAlthough fear is the root of â€œturn away from evilâ€ (×¡×•×¨ ×ž×¨×¢) and love (is the root of) â€œdo good,â€ (×¢×©×” ×˜×•×‘) nevertheless, it is not sufficient to awaken the love alone to â€œdo good,â€ but at the very least,Â before performing the positive command,Â one must first arouse the innate fear (which lies hidden in the heart of every Jew not to rebel against the Supreme King of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He)â€.
Thus, even for the â€œdo goodâ€, it requires accepting the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven -Â Kaballat Ol.
Therefore he also cites the parable of: â€œJust like that ox on which one first places a yoke in order to make it useful to the worldâ€. For from this parable it is understood that even for the â€œDo Goodâ€ there must be the acceptance of the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven.
Just like â€œthat oxâ€ - that the reason that â€œone first places a yoke on itâ€ is (not just in order to prevent it from goring (×©×˜×•×™×¡×Ÿ) and not causing harm, but also) â€œin order to make it useful to the worldâ€, so too â€œa human being first of all submit to the yoke of the Kingdom of Heavenâ€.
(Not just in order to forewarn that he should â€œturn away from evilâ€ (×¡×•×¨ ×ž×¨×¢), but also)
because â€œif this (submission) is not found in him, holiness cannot rest within himâ€.
For even the â€œresting of the holinessâ€ (×”×©×¨××ª ×”×§×“×•×©×”) â€“ the â€œrevelation and drawing down of G-d into the lower realmâ€ which comes through the Positive Mitzvot â€“ can rest within him only when the fulfilling of the Positive Mitzvot are (also) because of the acceptance of the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven.
6. One could however ask:
The Alter Rebbe cites the wording of the parable in Zohar â€œand if this . . is not found in him, holiness cannot rest within himâ€. From this alone it is also clear that - even for the resting of the holiness which comes through the fulfillment of Positive Mitzvot, it requires Kaballat Ol â€“ therefore why must he also bring the parable of â€œJust like that oxâ€?
This can be understood after explanation the wording of the Alter Rebbeâ€
â€œAlthough fear is the root of â€œturn away from evilâ€ (×¡×•×¨ ×ž×¨×¢) and love (is the root of) â€œdo good,â€ (×¢×©×” ×˜×•×‘) nevertheless, it is not sufficientâ€.
Seemingly this is necessary here only to forewarn regarding the â€œDo Goodâ€ that even the root of the â€œDo Goodâ€ is love, nevertheless, it is â€œnot sufficientâ€ to have love alone, and one must (even because of the â€œDo Goodâ€) awaken also the fear.
However what relevance here, is the explanation of the words â€œAlthough fear is the root of â€œturn away from evilâ€ (×¡×•×¨ ×ž×¨×¢)?
However, the explanation of this is:
With those very words, the Alter Rebbe allows one to clearly understand what it means that fear and Kaballat Ol are necessary even for the Avodah of â€œDo Goodâ€.
If just the aspect of the love and the â€œDo Goodâ€ would have been mentioned, one could mean that it speaks here of a case where the aspect of Kaballat Ol and fear is completely lacking. And therefore one would automatically infer that the reason that â€œit is not sufficient to awaken the love alone to â€˜do goodâ€™â€ and one must have Kaballat Ol â€“ so much so that â€œand if this . . is not found in him, holiness cannot rest within himâ€ - is because the lack of Kaballat Ol contradicts the resting of the holiness.
For when one does not have Kaballat Ol, he is therefore not Batel (i.e. he does not possess the self-nullification) to G-d. Therefore there is no resting of the holiness (×”×©Â×¨××ª ×”×§×“×•×©) in him since â€œG-d does not rest in a thing unless it is Batel to Himâ€.
Therefore he cites the words â€œfear is the root of â€˜turn away from evil'â€™ (×¡×•×¨ ×ž×¨×¢)â€. For although he is not lacking the fear as a root to the â€œturn away from evilâ€. It is only that his Avodah of â€œDo Goodâ€ is done because of the awakening of love alone, and not because of Kaballat Ol â€“ nevertheless this is not sufficient and also in his â€œDo Goodâ€ - â€œif this (Kaballat Ol) is not found in him, holiness cannot rest within himâ€.
And in order to further clarify the explanation of â€œif this . . is not found in him etc.â€ â€“ namely that this means (not only the manner of the lack of Kaballat Ol which actually contradicts the resting of the holiness, but also) that because the Resting of the Holiness itself requires Kaballat Ol â€“ the Alter Rebbe cites the parable of â€œJust like that oxâ€ in which this very aspect becomes brought out and clearly emphasized (××•× ×˜×¢×¨×’×¢×©×˜×¨××›×Ÿ) that the reason that one â€œfirst places a yoke on itâ€ is â€œin order to make it useful to the worldâ€.
And with this it is also understood why the Zohar says that servants are exempt from Mitzvot:
The main aspect of Mitzvot is like their name, â€˜Mitzvahâ€™ from the word â€˜commandâ€™ (×ž×¦×•×” ×ž×œ×³ ×¦×™×•×•×™) â€“ that their fulfillment is because of the command (×‘××¤×¢×œ). And since they are exempt from the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven, they are automatically exempt from â€œMitzvotâ€ â€“ from the word â€œcommandâ€™.
7. The reason that the Resting of the Holiness itself requires the acceptance of the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven also in the area of â€œDo Goodâ€ (×¢×©×” ×˜×•×‘) is that - when this comes only from love, it does not draw down the Resting of the Holiness (even though he has Kaballat Ol in the area of â€œturn away from evilâ€ (×¡×•×¨ ×ž×¨×¢)).
A created being has no comparison (×¢×¨×š) to the Creator. Therefore, when the fulfillment of Mitzvot is just because of love, which is a feeling that is connected with the being of the lover (×ž×¦×™××•×ª ×”××•×”×‘), meaning the being of the person - then this (type of) fulfillment of the Mitzvah (with love â€“ the aspect of the person) cannot reach the level of the â€œrevelation and the drawing down of G-dâ€ (the revelation of the Creator). For then, the Creator is incomparably higher than the person. Specifically when the fulfillment of Mitzvot is because of Kaballat Ol -accepting the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven, since Kaballat Ol is connected (not with his being, but) with the existence of the â€œKingâ€ - then the Mitzvah contains, as it were, the power of the â€œCreatorâ€ and can therefore effect the â€œResting of the Holinessâ€.
This and even more:
The boundary of a servant is that he in completely acquired to his master (×§× ×•×™ ×œ×¨×‘×•). And if he feels (×©×¤×™×¨×˜) in himself, a part of his own being, this is contrary to the aspect of being a servant. Therefore when his fulfillment of Mitzvot (of â€œDo Goodâ€) is â€œwith love aloneâ€ it comes out that this itself â€“ namely his feeling of love
(Which is connected with his being and individuality (×ž×¦×™××•×ª ×•×”×ª×¤×©×˜×•×ª))
is a contradiction to the aspect of Kaballat Ol
(Even though he has Kaballat Ol, with regard to â€œturn away from evilâ€ (×¡×•×¨ ×ž×¨×¢)) and he has fear â€œnot to rebel against G-dâ€™s sovereigntyâ€) -
and therefore â€“ to the Resting of the Holiness.
Therefore the â€œDo Goodâ€ must also (just like the love which is the â€œroot of the â€œDo Goodâ€) be permeated (×“×•×¨×›×’×¢×“×¨×•× ×’×¢×Ÿ) with Kaballat Ol,
(That even his love for G-d (××”×‘×ª ×”×³) should come from the command â€œand you shall love the L-rd your Gâ€‘dâ€) â€“
like a servant which has no being for himself except for the being of his master.
8. According to the aforementioned one can also understand the comparison of the â€six years you shall plant etc.â€ (with regard to Shmittah) to the â€œsix years he shall serveâ€ of a servant.
From the complete (×¤×•×œ×©×˜×¢× ×“×™×§×¢×¨) dependency and the devotion (××™×‘×¢×¨×’×¢×’×¢×‘× ×§×™×™×˜) of a servant to his master, that his entire being is acquired to his master â€“ then just as it is not applicable that the servant should have his own desires
(So much so that he does not even have any love for his master, as aforementioned, except that with this love itself he carries out the command of the master) â€“
so too, on the other hand, it is not his thing to fulfill his own needs. The obligation rests on the master to feed him and to provide his servant with all of the needs â€“ the servant himself must not be concerned (×–××¨×’×Ÿ) with this since he is a part of the property of the master.
Therefore the Zohar compares the â€six years you shall plant etc.â€ to the â€œsix years he shall serveâ€ of a servant who is exempt from accepting the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven.
Since during the â€œsix yearsâ€, G-d says to a Yid â€œplant your fieldâ€ and â€œprune your vineyardâ€, that the Yid alone should provide for his Parnassah.
(And even though the growth of the â€œplantingâ€ and â€œpruningâ€ comes, exclusively (××•×™×¡×©×œ×™×¡×œ×¢×š) from G-dâ€™s blessing, as it states: â€œyour G-d, will bless you in all you doâ€. Since however the blessing of G-d is, as it is, enclothed and becomes expressed (××•×™×¡×’×¢×“×¨×™×§×˜) specifically in â€œall that you doâ€
(and specifically since, because of the hiddenness and concealment, there can still be a place to err that â€œMy strength and the power of my hand have acquired this wealth for me.")
and not like the seventh year when the â€œI will command My blessingâ€ is visible and not enclothed in the garments of nature
(since from the perspective of nature, since one â€œdoes not plant and does not reap etc.â€ â€“
the question (so much so that even Torah gives a place for this question) could arise: â€œand if they shall say what will we eat?â€)
Therefore it comes out that in the â€œsix yearsâ€, similar to the â€six years he shall serveâ€, G-d removed, as it were, His dominion (××“× ×•×ª) over the Yid and set the person in his own domain (×‘×¨×©×•×ª ×¢×¦×ž×•) - that he alone must work for his Parnassah â€“ even though a master is obligated to provide sustenance for his servant â€“ since the ownership is not visible.
9. Even though, in the â€œsix yearsâ€, the blessing - â€œyour G-d, will bless youâ€ - is enclothed and hidden in the â€œall you doâ€ - meaning in the garments of nature. Nevertheless, since it states regarding the Yidden that â€œG-d's portion, is with His peopleâ€ â€“ meaning that they are a part of G-d (×—×œ×§ ×¤×•×Ÿ ×”×•×™×³)
(Who is Omnipresent - past present and future as one - ×”×™×™ ×”×•×” ×•×™×”×™×³ ×›××—×“)
Who is above nature â€“ therefore the garments of nature do not, so much, hide â€“ even in the course of the â€œsix yearsâ€, when Torah itself says that there must be planting and pruning. This means that even in nature, the Yidden feel that which is above nature.
This is the difference between the effluence from above to the Yidden, and the effluence to the nations (××•×”×´×¢), to distinguish (×œ×”×‘×“×™×œ):
Regarding the nations of the world, since they receive their effluence from the stars and constellations (×›×•×›×‘×™× ×•×ž×–×œ×•×ª) (and from the seventy ministering-angels that are appointed over theÂ seventyÂ nations) â€œthat your G-d, has made them available to all the peoplesâ€ â€“ regarding them - nature is indeed a true hiddenness and concealment.
(This is the reason that Bnei Noach are not forewarned against â€œShitufâ€
(Note: the heretical idea that there can be some sort of co-partnership with G-d)
Â â€“ Even though the stars and constellations are only, with regard to G-d â€“ like the ax in the hand of the hewer (×›×’×¨×–×Ÿ ×‘×™×“ ×”×—×•×¦×‘). For since â€œG-d has made them available to themâ€ - it gives room that with regard to the Bnei Noach, the stars and constellation (and the ministering-angels) look, in a certain way, like â€œpartnersâ€, which have (as it were) a say in the Godly effluence.)
However with regard to Yidden, they are forewarned against Shituf, for although, the effluence to the Yidden come in a manner of â€œwith the sweetness of the produce of the sun etc.â€ - nevertheless, they feel, visibly, how the sun and the moon etc., are just like the ax in the hand of the hewer, and that the effluence comes from G-d.
10. according to this one can also understood, how there can be a supposition that â€œSince my master worships idols. . I will also be like him!â€:
Since the effluence of Parnassah to the servant comes completely through his master â€“ and as aforementioned, that he is obligated, according to Torah, to sustain his servant
(So much so, that if the servant, on his own, provides for himself, it is the very opposite of the aspect of servitude, as aforementioned) â€“
therefore the servant could have a supposition (××•×™×¤×§×•×ž×¢×Ÿ × ×¡×‘×¨×) that â€œSince my master worships idols etc.â€œ.
For since there are aspects of idol worship in which â€œmy masterâ€ is permitted,
(As aforementioned, in the aspect of Shituf, on which his master is not forewarned, since regarding him, the stars and constellations, are indeed, as if they are partners)
and since his sustenance comes from his master â€“ therefore he can think: â€œI will also be like him!â€- that also the effluence to him comes (through his master and) and like through Shituf/partnership from the stars and constellations â€“ idol worship.
And this is the innovation in the statement of Torah â€œYou shall not make idols for yourselvesâ€, namely that a Yid, in whatever condition he is in â€“ is a â€œportion of G-dâ€ (×—×œ×§ ×”×•×™×³). The difference is only with regard to the hiddenness and revelation. That in the seventh year it is â€œand I will command My blessingâ€ with the epitome of revelation. Whereas in the â€six yearsâ€ the blessings - â€œyour G-d, will bless youâ€ - is enclothed and hidden in the â€œin all that you doâ€.
And for one who is sold to a non-Jew, G-dâ€™s blessings are enclothed in an even coarser garment, so much so that his Parnassah (in the revealed sense) comes through the work for a non-Jew (and even lower than that, since one may work for: â€œan idol of the family of a non-Jewâ€ (× ×ž×›×¨ ×œ×¢×§×¨) - through being a wood -chopper and water-drawer for idol worship).
This is however, only an external garment. However in his Pnimiyut, the effluence is from G-d who is above nature.
11. According to the aforementioned, one can also understood, why specifically by the fulfillment of the command of â€œYou shall not make idols etc.â€ and â€œYou shall keep My Sabbaths etc.â€ â€“ where it speaks regarding one who is â€œsold to a non-Jewâ€ , the verse must state the innovation that "I am the L-rdâ€- â€œfaithful to give rewardâ€:
The reward for a Mitzvah is (not a side thing (×–×™×™×˜×™×’×¢ ×–××š), with which a person is paid for the Mitzvah which he has done, but) a direct outcome of the Mitzvah itself. And as the Alter Rebbe states: â€œThe cause of the reward for the Mitzvah is the Mitzvah itselfâ€.
However in the reward for the Mitzvah itself, there are two aspects:
1. The realization (×•×•×¢×¨×Ÿ) of the entity of the reward, which becomes created through the deed of the Mitzvah, and
2. The payment (×ª×©×œ×•×) of the reward - the payment which is paid and comes to the person.
Regarding all Mitzvot it is a simple matter that:
1. Through the fulfillment of the Mitzvah, the reward for the Mitzvah (Above), becomes created.
2. The reward comes to the person who fulfills the Mitzvah.
However when it speaks of the command â€œYou shall not make idols etc.â€ and â€œYou shall keep My Sabbaths etc.â€ which is said to one who is sold to a non-Jew. To such a person, as this, who, visibly is in a condition of â€œI am like himâ€ â€“ namely that he receives his effluence through his master (and not from G-d who is above nature) -
He can therefore think to himself that:
Since Torah says to meÂ that â€œYou shall not make idols for yourselves - You shall keep My Sabbathsâ€, therefore it is indeed a certainty that through my fulfilling this very Mitzvah, the aspect of reward will be effected. However there is a place to infer - that this very reward will not be paid (××¤×’×¢×¦××œ×˜) to me, since according to my condition â€“ I am â€œlike himâ€. Therefore how is it possible that the reward which comes about through not worshiping idols and throughÂ keeping Shabbat (which is the revelation of G-d who is above nature, which is related specifically to Yidden) should come to me, and, even more so, into revelation?
Therefore the verse states â€œI am the L-rdâ€â€“ â€œfaithful to give rewardâ€:
From the level of "Havaye" -G-d - where even (the name) â€œHavayeâ€ is just an appelation (even though that among the Names itself, it is the Shaim HaEtzem â€“ Tetragrammaton - the Shaim HaMeforash, Shaim HaMeyuchad etc.) however, it can indeed, not come into revelation, to such a Yid that has been sold to a non-Jew. And therefore, from the perspective of Torah, there is a place for the supposition that â€œSince my master worships idols. . Since my master desecrates the Sabbath, I will also be like him!â€
Even though that â€œG-d's portion, is with His peopleâ€ â€“ for regarding a Yid who is sold to a non-Jew, the name of G-d does not illuminate visibly.
However, through that which he fulfills the command (for Mitzvot reside in Atzmut â€“ the Essence if G-d) of â€œYou shall not make idols for yourselves - You shall keep My Sabbathsâ€ This effects the â€œI am the L-rdâ€ and since from the perspective of â€œI amâ€ meaning from G-dâ€™s perspective, there are no limitations â€“the reward therefore comes even to one that is sold to a non-Jew.
12. Similar to this is also regarding the promise that there is â€œthere is much reward to give to youâ€ which Rabbi Meir says to the Yidden who â€œreduce the businessâ€, and instead of this, he engages in Torah study â€“ that since he as at such a level, which due to his standing and condition, is, according to Shulchan Aruch, considered a business person (and also the directive of the Mishnah is not that he should refrain from being a business person and become a Torah scholar, but that he should just reduce his business) - he does not stand in the level of those that â€œdo the Wlll of the Omnipresentâ€ (×¢×•×©×™×Ÿ ×¨×¦×•× ×• ×©×œ ×ž×§×•×) of which the Talmud states in Tractate Berachot, whose Avodah is â€œwith all your mightâ€ - who are completely devoted to Torah and whose Parnassah comes down in a manner that is above nature (similar to â€œand strangers will arise and pasture your flocksâ€ which will be in the Future) â€“
Therefore he can think to himself that the â€œtoiling in Torahâ€œ
1. Does not contain any â€œrewardâ€ â€“ an outcome in the realm of reward â€“ since it is higher than this.
2. It cannot come to one whose standing and condition is like his, since this is completely higher than this, higher that â€œtime and placeâ€.
Therefore Rabbi Meir states that
1. â€œThere is much rewardâ€
2. â€œTo give to youâ€
meaning that from the perspective of Atzmut, - G-d â€“
who is not bound in any limitation, G-d forbid, not in the realm of Gevul/limitation and also not in the realm of Bli Gevul/unlimited,
there is â€œmuch rewardâ€ and it is also â€œto give to youâ€.
Msichas Shabbat Parshat Behar â€“ BechuKaballat Oltai 5724
Shabbat Parshat Eikev 5728
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