Vol 36.27 - Purim 2 Spanish French Audio Video
(5751) The three reasons that we do not say Hallel on Purim (Tal. Megillah 14a)
1) The miracle occurred outside of the land of Israel
2) The reading of the Megillah is equivalent to Hallel.
3) We are still servants of Ahasuerus
And the difference in Avodat HaAdam
1. We learn in the Talmud (Megillah 14a) (regarding the reason for the enactment of the prophets to read the Megillah of Purim):
“If for being delivered from slavery to freedom we chant a hymn of praise (at the Exodus from Egypt they said the Song of the Sea- Rashi), should we not do so all the more for being delivered from death to life? If that is the reason we should say Hallel also? —
(And they answer- We do not do so) because we do not say Hallel for a miracle which occurred outside of the land of Israel. How then do we come to say a song for the Exodus from Egypt which was a miracle which occurred outside the land of Israel? (And they answer) As it has been taught: ‘Until they entered the land of Israel, all lands were counted as proper for chanting a hymn of praise (for miracles done in them) — After they had entered the land, other countries were not counted as proper for chanting a hymn of praise (for miracles done in them).
R’ Nachman said: The reading of the Megillah is equivalent to Hallel.
Rava said: There is a good reason in that case (of the Exodus from Egypt) because it says (in the Hallel), ‘Praise you O servants of the L-rd’, who are no longer servants of Pharaoh — But can we say in this case, Praise you, servants of the L-rd and not servants of Achashverosh? We are still servants of Achashverosh! (אכתי עבדי אחשורוש אנן) (For we were only delivered, save from death -Rashi)
Thus there are three reasons that the saying of Hallel was not enacted on Purim:
In other words, according to the first and third reasons, there is no obligation to say Hallel. Whereas according to the second reason we are obligated to say Hallel, however we fulfill the obligation of Hallel with the reading of the Megillah
(And according to the view of Mei’ri, the ramification in Halacha is for one who does not have a Megillah, for according to the reason that “The reading of the Megillah is equivalent to Hallel“, he is obligated to say Hallel)
We seemingly need to examine the third reason that “We are still servants of Achashverosh”
(And Rashi’s explanation: “we were only delivered, save from death“)
For the question of the Talmud: “If for being delivered from slavery to freedom we chant a hymn of praise, should we not do so all the more for being delivered from death to life?” still stands. Could it be that just since the condition does not fit the verse “Praise, you servants of the L-rd”, that one should be exempt from saying Hallel to G-d for his deliverance “from death to life“? (which is greater than the deliverance from “slavery to freedom”).
Therefore one must say that the aspect of “servants of the L-rd” is related to the essential aspect of reciting Hallel. For when one is lacking this condition (תנאי זה) it precludes (מעכב) one from saying Hallel. For just the reading of the Megillah was enacted because of the kal v’chomer “should we not do so all the more for being delivered from death to life?“. However, in order to say Hallel one must be in the condition of “servants of the L-rd”.
2. The Talmud there, continues:
“Whether on the view of Rava or on the view of R’ Nachman, there is a difficulty:
For it has been taught in a Beraita: ‘after they had entered the land, other countries were not counted as proper for chanting a hymn of praise (for miracles done in them)’ (and they answer) — When the people went into exile, the other countries became proper as at first”.
It appears from this that even according to Rava’s view, it is possible to have the obligation for Hallel, even after Yisroel was exiled, for a miracle that was done for them in Chutz l’Aretz (“other countries became proper as at first“).
This is seemingly puzzling:
According to Rava’s view, as long as they were not delivered from “slavery to freedom “, we do not say Hallel. If so, how is it applicable to say Hallel after they were “exiled” (שגלו) and are in a condition of “We are still servants”?
(As is explained in the Ra”n that “this reason of Rava is sufficient (סגי) for any miracle that was done in Chutz l’Aretz, when Yisroel is in Galut).
3. One could say that the explanation of all this is:
All the three aforementioned reasons that saying Hallel was not enacted on Purim, have one foundation – namely, that the miracle of Purim was not an open miracle.
(For we do not find in any of the details of the miracle of Purim, an aspect of uprooting the systems of nature (שידוד מערכות הטבע) and the nullification of the conduct of the world (וביטול מנהגו של עולם). It just “appears” intellectually, that all the causes were above nature).
Whereas the enactment to say Hallel, is, specifically, just over an open miracle. So much so that we say “One who reads Hallel every day is tantamount to one who curses and blasphemes”. For even though we thank and acknowledge G-d every day in prayer “for Your miracles that are with us daily“, in other words that G-d performs for us miracle “every day” – nevertheless, this does not obligate the saying Hallel . (And on the contrary “One who reads Hallel every day etc.“). For they are not open miracles, and saying Hallel is specifically over an open miracle, as aforementioned.
However, there is a critical difference between “Your miracles that are with us daily“ to the miracle of Purim. For “Your miracles that are with us daily“ are kindnesses that come about through natural conduct (החסדים הבאים בהנהגה טבעית).
They are indeed called “Your miracles“, since, truthfully, even natural conduct (הנהגת הטבע) is an aspect of miracle
(As it is explained in many places that Nature itself is “many constant and persistent miracles” (טבע עצמו הוא ״נסים רבים מתמידים ותכופים״))
However, the miracle of Purim was entirely a miraculous event. It is just that the miracle was enclothed in the ways of Nature.
Therefore, there is room for the debate whether there is an obligation to say Hallel on Purim:
According to this one could explain the view of R’ Nachman “The reading of the Megillah is equivalent to Hallel“. For one could say that his intent is not that they did not enact reciting Hallel on Purim because they had already enacted the reading of the Megillah, and therefore there was no need (also) to say Hallel. But rather it is because the saying Hallel on Purim is not relevant except the reading of the Megillah (שאמירת הלל בפורים לא תתכן אלא בקריאת המגילה).
In other words, from one’s own accord, a person does not feel the miracle, in the episode of Purim, in a manner that obligates him to say Hallel (for it is specifically just over an open miracle, as aforementioned). However, specifically, in the reading of the Megillah is it possible to praise G-d for this miracle. For since it is one of the twenty-four books of the Hagiographa (כ״ד כתבי קודש), a part of Torat Emet (the Torah of truth) and Torah Or (the light of Torah) (חלק מתורת אמת ו״תורה אור״) - through and in it, the truth of the aspect (of Purim) is illuminated and emphasized, that this was a miracle from G-d (and it was just enclothed in nature). And this is why R’ Nachman says “The reading of the Megillah is equivalent to Hallel“. In other words that the reading of the Megillah incorporates and also includes (תלוי׳ וגם כלולה) the saying Hallel.
(And the practical ramification is that according to this idea, even one who does not possess a Megillah does not say Hallel. For this is accordance with what the Acharonim state that “from the plain words of the codifiers (מסתימות דברי הפוסקים), it appears that Hallel never occurs on it”. However, they explain that since the Sages did not enact Hallel on Purim, there is, consequently, no place to recite it, even when one does not possess a Megillah. And according to the aforementioned, it is even more than this, namely that from the very onset, the saying Hallel on Purim is not applicable, but rather only the reading of the Megillah alone).
4. The reason of the matter, that on the miracle of Purim it is impossible to say Hallel since it is a miracle that is enclothed in nature - can be explained in two manners:
(Like natural conduct, that even though are also “Your miracles that are with us daily “, do not obligate saying Hallel. And on the contrary, is it prohibited to say Hallel, on such conduct).
And one could say that this is difference between the two reasons that there is no obligation to recite Hallel, at all, on Purim:
According to the first reason, this is because of the property of the miracle (החפצא דהנס):
It is known that in G-d’s providence (שבהשגחה האלקית) there is a difference between Eretz Yisroel and Chutz l’Aretz.
Whereas Rava holds that after we were exiled, the place of Chutz l’Aretz does not negate the possibility for saying Hallel, and the deficiency is due to the person (הגברא) – “We are still servants of Achashverosh”. For in order to say Hallel, one must be “servants of the L-rd and not servants of Achashverosh”. For only one who has the virtue of “servants of the L-rd”, can feel the miraculous conduct in a miracle that is enclothed in nature. Whereas when Yisroel are subjugated to the nations of the world, it is impossible for them to attain this feeling, and therefore there is no room for saying Hallel.
5. One can explain the aspect in Avodat HaAdam:
The difference between Eretz Yisroel and Chutz l’Aretz, for a person himself, is the difference tween the aspects of his soul and the aspects of his body. For in the soul of a person, which is a “veritable part of G-d Above“, the G-dly light (האור האלקי) is visibly felt (similar to the aspect of “the Eyes of the L-rd, your G-d, are always upon it“). Whereas with regard to the aspects of the body which is “outside” (חוץ) of this revelation.
And this is the essence of the first view that we do not say Hallel over a miracle that occurred in Chutz l’Aretz. For reciting Hallel is the praise over the revelation of G-dliness. And this is applicable only from perspective of the soul of the person who feels this revelation – and not the body.
According to this one can explain (in the Pnimiyut of the matter) the view of Rava that we do not say Hallel over the miracle of Purim since “We are still servants of Achashverosh!” and yet holds that “When the people went into exile, the other countries became proper as at first“:
The statement: “We are still servants of Achashverosh” just refers to the aspects of the body. However, regarding the aspect of the soul, since Matan Torah, Yisroel became “servants of the L-rd”, for eternity. This is stated clearly in the verse “For, Bnei Yisroel are My servants. They are My servants“ and as the Sages say that “My decree has precedence“ (שטרי קודם).
(This is like the saying of the Rebbe Rayatz in the name of his father that “Only our bodies have been given into exile and into the subjugation of the nations, but our souls were not given into exile and into the subjugation of the nations!“).
Therefore Rava does not negate the scope of Hallel in the time of Galut. For the aspects of the soul are not affected through Galut, and with them it is possible to praise.
It is just over the miracle of Purim, which was enclothed in nature, that it is impossible that there be praise, for with regard to nature (in other words, physical things, and in the person himself, the aspects of the body) – “We are still servants of Achashverosh”.
R’ Nachman holds that “The reading of the Megillah is equivalent to Hallel“. For through the power of Torah, a person is able to draw down the G-dly revelation even in the aspects of nature – that even in them, Holy light (אור הקדושה) should be felt.
And in Avodat HaAdam this means that when he serves G-d with all of his physical aspects in a manner that: “Let all your deeds be done for the sake of Heaven” (“kol maasecha yih'yu l'shaim shamayim”), and “In all your ways know Him” (“b'chol derachecha de'eihu”), then he draws down into them the revelation of G-dliness similar to the aspects of his soul.
And this is also the inner explanation, of the Sages statement: “juxtaposing the Geulah to the Geulah“ (מסמך גאולה לגאולה). For we need to juxtapose (bring close) the Geulah of Purim to the Geulah of Pesach. For the Geulah of Pesach, that comes about through “before the King of the kings of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He, revealed Himself to them and redeemed them”. And with revealed miracles, it effected that Bnei Yisroel become “servants of the L-rd and not servants of Pharaoh”. And the purpose of the intent is to juxtapose and draw down this “Geulah” even into the Geulah of Purim, that even in the aspects of nature, it should be felt that, in essence, they are miraculous aspects.
So much so that the tidings of “And the glory of the L-rd shall be revealed, and all flesh together shall see that the mouth of the L-rd spoke“ will be fulfilled, with the true and complete Geulah, speedily and in our days, mamosh.
MSichas Purim 5722
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