Vol 33.09 - Behaalotecha 1 Spanish French Audio Video
(5747) Explanation of Tzemach Tzedek (Or HaTorah, Bamidbar II, pg 367 etc.) that the aspect of Pesach Sheini in Avodat HaAdam is the elevation from the first level of Avodah (going out of Mitzraim, turn from evil (sur m'ra)) to the second level (do good (aseh tov)).
The reason that Pesach Sheini was established as a special day even now when we do not have the Passover sacrifice.
1. Regarding the law of Pesach Sheni -
which the Torah established as a “Tashlumin” (recompense/תשלומין) for missing the Pesach Rishon (the first Pesach), specifically on the 14th of Iyar, one month after Pesach Rishon -
One must explain the difference between the Pesach sacrifice (whose time of Tashlumin comes after a pause of one month) from other Korbanot of Yom Tov, whose days of Tashlumin come after the first day of the Holiday?
This is especially problematic, according to statement of the Sages that regarding those who were "ritually impure from contact with human corpses” in the desert,
(who came with the claim "why should we be excluded and not be able to bring the offering of G-d in its proper time” and they merited that this Parsha should be stated through them)
the seventh day of their impurity occurred on the eve of Pesach, which according to this, it was possible to establish the time of Tashlumin during the days of the holiday itself.
One could say that (according to Pnimiyut HaTorah) this is the basis for the explanation of the Tzemach Tzedek, that the aspect of Pesach Sheni in Avodat HaAdam is connected to the context of the Avodah of the month of Iyar, the "second month".
The essence of the Tzemach Tzedek’s explanation is:
The aspect of Pesach Sheni in Avodat HaAdam is ascending from the “first level” of Yetziat Mitzrayim
(Pesach Rishon in the month of Nisan, the first month)
to the “second level” (in the month of Iyar, the second month).
This is the Avodah of "and Do good" (ועשה טוב) that follows the preface of " Turn away from evil” (סור מרע).
In other words, the Exodus from Egypt is the beginning of the Avodah of, "Turn away from evil" - the going out of Egypt. As is explained in Tanya regarding Yetziat Mitzrayim that "the people fled", “because the evil which was in the souls of Yisroel was still in force etc.”.
Thus, their main Avodah was in the manner of, "Turn away from evil" (fleeing from the defilement of Egypt) -
Yet after the preface of “Turn away from evil” they were able to ascend to the second level of “and do good”.
In spiritual Avodah, in the soul of a person, Yetziat Mitzrayim (Pesach Rishon) represents the Avodah of Iskafia - bending the evil in one’s soul.
From this Avodah one attains and ascends to the second level '- the Avodah of "ishapcha ", transforming evil into good, "with all your heart – with your two inclinations".
This advantage of Pesach Sheni corresponds with the general innovation of the Avodah of the month of Iyar, the second month (versus the month of Nisan, the first month) – which is the counting of the Omer (for “the main part of Sefirat HaOmer is in the entire month of Iyar”) –
The Avodah of counting the Omer is refining the Middot and transforming them to holiness.
According to this, the Tzemach Tzedek explains the difference between Pesach Rishon and Pesach Sheni, that:
Since the Avodah of the Pesach Rishon is " Turn away from evil” - fleeing from evil - therefore the obligation to eradicate Chametz (which alludes to evil, "the sour leaven in the dough”), applies then, that there should not be any Chametz in one’s possession.
Which is not so regarding the Pesach Sheni, whose aspect is turning evil into good. Therefore, one does not need, as its time, to eradicate Chametz from one’s possession. Rather, "one may possess Chametz and Matzah in the house with him". For through Pesach Sheni, one is given the (additional) power to transform the Chametz to holiness.
(One could say that this similar to the advantage of the of the Two Loaves of bread on the Festival of Shavuot (versus the Omer offering on the Festival of Pesach) whose virtue is specifically that, “You shall bake them leavened”. For after the completion of the Avodah of Sefirat HaOmer, the Chametz is completely transformed into holiness and we are able to utilize it for a Korban to G-d).
2. However, one must examine the essence of the Tzemach Tzedek’s explanation:
For seemingly this explanation - that Pesach Sheni is a second level and one that is higher in Avodah (“do good”, Ishapcha) that follows the preface of the Avodah of Pesach Rishon (“Turn away from evil”, Iskafia) - is the exact opposite of the what is explained in the simple meaning of the verse (and Halacha), that the whole aspect of Pesach Sheni is only regarding a person who did not bring the Pesach Rishon.
(Moreover, whoever offered his Korban on Pesach Rishon, not only is he not obligated to offer the Pesach Sheni, but he is prohibited from offering the Pesach Sheni)!
Yet according to the explanation of the Tzemach Tzedek, it is the opposite.
For, in addition to that which after the Avodah of Pesach Rishon, the Avodah of the Pesach Sheni is relevant and even demanded. Even more than this, it is impossible to attain the Avodah of Pesach Sheni except specifically through the preface of the Avodah of Pesach Rishon?!
3. One could say the explanation of this, by prefacing:
That which was said above, namely that the whole aspect of Pesach Sheni is specifically when it was not preceded by Pesach Rishon – is only with regard to the Korban Pesach.
If one did not offer the Korban on the first (Pesach) he offers it on the second, and if he offered it in the first, he is prohibited from offering it in the second.
However, it is understood that this is not the case regarding other aspects and Mitzvot of Pesach, such as the prohibitions of Chametz and the eating of Matzah. Even those who did not offer the Korban Pesach on the 14th of Nisan (according to Torah, since he was "unclean" or "far away") are nevertheless obligated in the prohibitions of Chametz and the Mitzvah of eating Matzah etc.
(One could add, that in the verse in question, the
"ritually impure from contact with human corpses"
were (according to statements of the Sages)
"Mishael and Elzaphan. . who were dealing with (the burial of) Nadav and Avihu".
In other words, their impurity was according to the command of Moshe, "Come closer and carry your brothers".
(One could say that this is the explanation of their claim, "Why are we deprived".
For it seemingly is not understood:
What is the place for the claim,
"Why are we deprived from offering of Korban of G-d in its proper time"?
They themselves preceded an answer to this claim by saying "We are impure, having had contact with a corpse", which is why they could not offer G-d's Korban in its time?
However, their claim was founded on that which their impurity was according to the Moshe’s command. Therefore, they claimed: How is it possible that through Moshe’s command - "we are deprived", and in particular from " offering of Korban of G-d in its proper time")?
According to this, it is clear and simple that all the aspects of the Pesach in these "men" (besides - the offering of the Korban Pesach) were with the epitome of perfection).
According to this, the words of the Tzemach Tzedek, that Pesach Sheni is connected to the second level in Avodah, that follows the first level of Pesach Rishon, is understood.
For in order to attain the level of Pesach Sheni, there must first be Pesach Rishon (even though Pesach Sheni is only for those who did not offer the Pesach Rishon):
The spiritual Avodah of the festival of Pesach - "Turn away from evil" - the coercion of evil - is related to the observance of (the other) aspects and Mitzvot of the holiday (the prohibitions of Chametz, and the obligation to eat Matzah - "bread of affliction").
Since even one who did not offer the Pesach Rishon, at its time, nevertheless fulfilled his Avodah in the (other) aspects of Pesach, one finds that Pesach Sheni is considered for him the second level, which follows the Avodah of Chag HaPesach (Rishon). This is like the explanation of the Tzemach Tzedek that on Pesach Sheni one attains and ascends to the second level in Avodah- “do good”, Ishapcha.
4. However, the matter has not yet been fully clarified:
Although it is indeed true that even one who did not offer the Pesach Rishon Korban is not deprived of his Avodah (also spiritual) in the first level of the first Chag HaPesach,
(since he possesses all the aspects of Pesach Rishon except for the Korban Pesach)
and he ascends to the second level of Pesach Sheni.
However, on the other hand:
(After all, according to the explanation of the Tzemach Tzedek the Avodah of Pesach Sheni is demanded of him)
One could say that the explanation of this is:
After the offering of the Pesach Rishon Korban, it is no longer necessary to bring a Korban on Pesach Sheni in order to attain the second level (“do good”, Ishapcha).
For this has already been accomplished completely by the Korban of Pesach Rishon.
In other words, a person’s attaining (in the month of Iyar, the second month) the second level in Avodat Hashem (“do good”, Ishapcha) comes through offering the Korban Pesach on Pesach Rishon.
The explanation of the aspect is:
“Korban” - "sacrifice" - is from the word “to come close” (קירוב). Through bringing a Korban a person comes close to G-d.
As is explained in many places, the aspect of a Korban in Avodat HaAdam, that a person must sacrifice to G-d, the “animal etc.” that is within himself etc. So much so, that it is worthy to be sacrificed on G-d’s Altar and burned with the Supernal fire, to be included in holiness, etc."
The offering of the Pesach Rishon Korban is the very thing that gives the power and effects, that the continuation of a person’s Avodah (the counting of the Omer, whose time begins immediately "the day after" the Pesach) will be in such a way that, through it, he will attain "do good", Ishapcha.
There is no contradiction between the explanation of the Tzemach Tzedek,
(that the aspect of Pesach Sheni is the second level in Avodat Hashem)
and the aspect of Pesach Sheni
(which comes to rectify and complete the lacking of Pesach Rishon) –
For the Avodah of Pesach Sheni (the second level, Ishapcha) is dependent upon the offering of the Pesach Rishon
Therefore, whoever offers the Pesach Rishon, will surely attain the second level (in the second month, including the day of Pesach Sheni) and there is no need (and in any case - a place) for another Korban.
Whereas, regarding one who did not offer the Pesach Rishon Korban, it is impossible for him to attain the level of Ishapcha without rectifying and completing the deficiency of not offering the Pesach Rishon, by offering a Korban on Pesach Sheni (and he is not deprived from offering – similar to the Pesach Rishon).
5. According to this explanation, the reason why even, in our time, Pesach Sheni is established as a special day for all of Yisroel is apt. As the Alter Rebbe writes in his Siddur, that on Pesach Sheni we do not say Tachanun (supplication). So much so, that there is a custom to eat Matzah as a remembrance of Pesach Sheni.
The aspect of Pesach Sheni is correction and completion for one who did not offer the Pesach Rishon Korban.
(Even according to the opinion (and so is the Halacha) that Pesach Sheni is a festival (רגל) in its own right, which is why even one who is not obligated to bring the Pesach Rishon, yet becomes obligated between Pesach Rishon and Sheni,
(for example, a child who reaches maturity, or a convert who converts between Rishon and Sheni)
is obligated to offer the Pesach Sheni Korban.
Nevertheless, one must say
(and it is clear in the verse that comes through the claim "why are we deprived")
that the aspect of Pesach Sheni is a Tashlumin for the deficit of Pesach Rishon, and anyone who offered the first Korban is prohibited from offering the second Korban.
However, the Torah innovated (and added in Pesach Sheni, a festival in its own right (רגל בפ"ע)) that even though a minor etc. is not obligated in the first, nevertheless, he is given the opportunity to offer the Pesach Korban on the 14th of Iyar - and this similarly applies to a convert).
Therefore, at this time (and especially in the Diaspora) where we do not have a Korban Pesach - the whole aspect of Pesach Sheni no longer seems to apply. Therefore, what place is there for the celebration of Pesach Sheni (in whatever form)?
"A single individual is deferred to the second Pesach, but the entire community is not deferred to the second Pesach” (rather, they observe the first Pesach in a state of ritual impurity)”.
In other words, the aspect of the Tashlumin of Pesach Sheni is given only to the individual and not to the community.
If so, how is it appropriate to establish Pesach Sheni as a day with special customs, such as not saying Tachanun etc. - for all Bnei Yisroel together?
(It is extremely problematic to answer that this is only according to the opinion of R. Yehuda (in the Talmud Yerushalmi) who states that:
“When Yisroel was allowed to build the Beit HaMikdash (between Pesach Rishon and Pesach Sheni) - the community offered the Pesach Sheni”.
(And in particular according to what was written in another place) that even the Talmud Bavli maintains like the Yerushalmi, that in such a situation, the community offers the Pesach Sheni) –
Thus, even though there is no Korban Pesach on the first Pesach, it is possible that there will be a Korban on Pesach Sheni -
Nevertheless, it is problematic to answer so. For the reason that we celebrate Pesach Sheni is not related to the possibility of offering the Pesach Sheni. Rather it is a remembrance of Pesach Sheni that was in effect during the time of the Beit HaMikdash. Therefore, what place is there to establish a remembrance for the community, for the Tashlumin of an aspect that was only given to an individual?)
Therefore, one must say that Pesach Sheni possesses aspect that is relevant to all Yisroel. According to what was explained above, regarding the aspect of the Pesach Sheni in Avodat HaAdam – the matter can be understood simply:
Since on this day every person of Yisroel has the power to attain the second level in Avodat HaShem, the Avodah of Ishapcha.
In other words, even those who offered the Pesach Rishon Korban, the completeness of the act of this offering (which is the Avodah of Ishapcha) comes in the second month, and especially on Pesach Sheni (where the counting that is related to the Sefirah of Hod begins).
Therefore, even at this time, when there is the spiritual Avodah of the Korban Pesach, we celebrate the special time of the ascent to the second level in Avodat HaShem - Ishapcha and “do good”.
(M’Sichas Pesach Sheni 5747, 5744)
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