Vol 31.12 - Beshalach 2 Spanish French Audio Video
A Building of the Heavens or of the Earth
Rashi,2 by contrast, explains that the Beit Hamikdash has already been constructed by G‑d and exists in the heavenly realms, waiting for the time when it will descend to the earth. For the Third Beis Hamikdash will be “the Sanctuary of G‑d, established by Your hands.”3 When the setting within the world is appropriate, this heavenly structure will descend and become an actual reality within our material world.
Each of these views is based upon sources in the works of our sages.4 There is, however, a unique historical point which supports Rambam’s position. Our sages relate5 that in the era of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Chananiah, the Romans granted the Jews permission to rebuild the Beit Hamikdash. Joyous at the opportunity they were granted, our people rushed to begin the preparations for building, only to have the project thwarted by the intervention of the Samaritans. What is significant, however, is that they planned to build the Beit Hamikdash through their own efforts; they did not wait for it to descend from the heavens.
Will We Be Worthy?
In the present context as well, it can be explained that the ultimate conception of the Beit Hamikdash is a heavenly structure to descend from above. If, however, the Jews are not worthy of such a sanctuary, the Beit Hamikdash will still return in the Era of the Redemption. It will, however, be a structure built by man, and not by G‑d.
On this basis, we can also resolve the difficulty cited above. When the Romans granted the Jews the opportunity to rebuild the Beit Hamikdash, the people must have been somewhat disappointed that the Beit Hamikdash did not descend from heaven. Nevertheless, the realization that they had not been found worthy of a heavenly structure did not dampen their enthusiasm for building a sanctuary to the fullest extent of their human potential.10
Concrete Elucidation of Yechezkel’s Prophecies
The structure which Shlomo built is already described in the book of Melachim. Similarly, the structure which will be constructed in the future era is described in the book of Yechezkel. Nevertheless, the description there is not explained or elucidated.
Therefore, the people who constructed the Second Beit Hamikdash in the time of Ezra built it according to the basic design employed by Shlomo, incorporating the elements which were explicitly detailed by Yechezkel.
It can be explained that Moshiach will lead the people in the construction of those dimensions of the Beit Hamikdash which can be grasped by human intellect. Afterwards, since the dimensions of Yechezkel’s prophecies which we cannot comprehend will be left incomplete, they will be revealed from heaven by G‑d.
When That Which is Hidden Will Emerge
In the era of the Redemption, the entire Beit Hamikdash will descend from the heavens, with the exception of the gates, which will ascend from the earth. Moshiach will then connect the gates to the Beit Hamikdash. Our sages explain15 that connecting the gates to a building is considered as equivalent to the construction of the entire edifice.
Adding Divine Perfection to Human Effort
Mankind is obligated to create a Sanctuary for G‑d within the context of our material world. After that is completed to the fullest extent of our human potential, the inner essence of the Beit Hamikdash will be revealed—that it is “the Sanctuary of G‑d,” possessing a dimension of perfection which utterly surpasses any possible work of mortal man.
May we witness the actual resolution of this issue in the immediate future, with the coming of the Redemption and the rebuilding—or the descent—of the Beit Hamikdash. “And then, the offering of Judah and Jerusalem will be pleasing to G‑d, as in the days of old and as in bygone years.”17
Adapted from Likkutei Sichot, Vol. 11, p. 98; vol. 18, pp. 418–419; Vol. 27, p. 205.
1. Mishneh Torah, Hilchos Melachim 11:1, 4.
1. On the verse (Ex.15:17):
“The sanctuary, of the L-rd, (which) Your hands established”.
The Mechilta (and this is also cited by Rashi on the verse) that:
“Beloved is the Temple before the Holy One Blessed be He. For when the Holy One Blessed be He created the world, He did so with only one hand, as it states, (Isaiah 48:13) "My hand, too, laid the foundation of the earth." But when He came to build the Temple, it was, as it were, with His two hands, as it states, “The sanctuary, of the L-rd, (which) Your hands established". When will it be rebuilt with Your two hands? . .’The L-rd will reign for ever and ever’" (in the Future – “when the entire ruling power is His”. Rashi).
In other words, the explanation of, “which Your hands established”, is literal - that the Mikdash is the handiwork of G-d.
However, in the Talmud, it states,
“The handiwork of the Tzaddikim (righteous) is greater than the creation of heaven and earth. For with regard to the creation of heaven and earth it is written: ‘My hand also has laid the foundation of the earth’ and ‘My right hand has spanned the heavens’ (Isaiah 48:13)
(One hand. Rashi (‘hand’ is written in the singular)) . .
Whereas with regard to the handiwork of the righteous it is written: ‘The place which You have made for Yourself to dwell in, L-rd, the Sanctuary, L-rd, which your hands have established’“
Rashi explains, “The Sanctuary is the handiwork of Tzaddikim”.
(Thus, although the verse states, “the Sanctuary, L-rd, which Your hands have established” – the handiwork of the Tzaddikim “is called . . the handiwork of G-d)”.
Seemingly, there is a place to say that the dispute between the Talmud and the Mechilta
(Whether “The sanctuary, of the L-rd, (which) Your hands established” is (truly (ממש) the handiwork of G-d or the handiwork of Tzaddikim),
is dependent of the well-known dispute whether the third Beit HaMikdash will be built by people or whether it will be built through G-d Himself, (for all agree that the verse is speaking of the Third Beit HaMikdash).
According to this, one could say that the reason that Rashi cites the homily of the Mechilta is because he follows the view of many places in the Talmud, that,
“The Future Mikdash that we are waiting for is already built and perfected, and it will be revealed and come down from Heaven, as it states, ‘The sanctuary, of the L-rd, which Your hands established’”.
However, according to this, one may question - from the other side. Why does Rashi write (in his commentary on the Talmud) with regard to the Third Beit HaMikdash that “the Mikdash is the handiwork of Tzaddikim”, the opposite of his (aforementioned) view in many places that the Future Mikdash “will be revealed and come from Heaven”?
Therefore, it is more apparent to explain, that the debate is over which Mikdash the verse, “The sanctuary, of the L-rd, which Your hands established” is referring:
One must understand what the foundation and reason for their dispute is, namely whether the Shirat HaYam (Song of the Sea) is speaking of the First (and Second) Mikdash, or whether it is speaking of the Third Beit HaMikdash of the Future?
2. Even in the commentators of Torah on that verse, we find two opinions in the explanation of these verses:
Many of the commentators state that it is referring to the Mishkan and the First Beit HaMikdash that was built by David (and Shlomo). For although it states, “The sanctuary, of the L-rd, which Your hands established”, this is like we say, that it means “According to all that I am showing you”, and “You shall erect the Mishkan according to its rules. As shown to you on the mountain”. Namely, that “G-d showed Moshe the form of the Mishkan in its built form”. In addition, David said, “All was in writing, from the hand of the L-rd, which He gave me to understand”. Therefore, it is referred to as being built by G-d.
However, according to Rashi (and others) it refers to the Mikdash that will be built in the Future, as aforementioned.
Seemingly, one may precisely note:
The view and aspect of Rashi’s commentary on Torah is to explain the simple meaning of the verse. Plainly, this verse comes in continuation to its beginning,
“You shall bring them and plant them on the mount of Your heritage, the place for Your habitation, which You made, O L-rd”. ('תביאמו ותטעמו בהר נחלתך מכון לשבתך פעלת ה)
In other words the entering into the Land and the building of the First Beit HaMikdash.
Why therefore, does Rashi split (his commentary of) the verse into two, dividing the time of all the exiles between them, and afterward, cite the end of the verse as referring to the Future Mikdash
(Seemingly, without all this, this explanation is further from the simple meaning of the verse, than the explanation that
“which Your hands established”
refers to the Mikdash, plainly – i.e. the First Beit HaMikdash.
(which will be built by people and is called “which Your hands established” since “All was in writing, from the hand of the L-rd, which He gave me to understand”).
Even according to logic, this is not understood:
How, is it fitting, that in the (middle) of song and thanks for the miracles of the Splitting of the Sea, that Bnei Yisroel should mention the Future Beit HaMikdash. For this emphasizes that the Mikdash that will be built when they enter the Land, will, at that time be (אז), destroyed.
(Like it is emphasized in the words of the Mechilta here:
“When will it be rebuilt with Your two hands? An analogy: Robbers enter a king's palace. They despoil it and kill the king's courtiers and raze his palace etc.. After some time, the king sits in judgment over them. He seizes some of them. . kills. . and he returns to his palace — after which his reign endures forever”).
For through this addition, aspects of retribution are intermingled into (the midst) of the Song!
3. One could say that explanation of this is:
“When will it be built with "two hands"? At the time when “the L-rd will reign to all eternity”. In the future, when the entire ruling power is His.”
does not mean that this was the intent of Moshe and Bnei Yisroel when they said this Song. Namely, to mention the building of the Future Mikdash (after the time of Rashi). Rather this is Rashi‘s reasoning, that in actuality this will occur in the Future. However, when they said the Shira, Yisroel intended that this refer to the Mikdash, plainly (the First Mikdash). That G-d will built this Mikdash with His two hands and fulfill the verse, “the L-rd will reign to all eternity”. This is as is explained in many places that if not for their sin, Yisroel would have entered Eretz Yisroel in a manner of complete and eternal Geulah, which would not have any Galut after it.
With this, the reason for the difference between Rashi and the Mechilta is plainly understood:
“When will it be rebuilt with Your two hands? An analogy: Robbers enter a king's palace. They despoil it and kill the king's courtiers and raze etc. (All this was during a long period). After some time, the king sits in judgment over them. He seizes some of them. . kills. . and he returns to his palace — after which his reign endures forever”.
In other words, it is referring to the Mikdash that will be built in the Future, a long time after the destruction of the (First and Second) Mikdash.
In other words:
According to the Mechilta, the conclusion of the verse,
“The sanctuary, of the L-rd, (which) Your hands established”
does not refer to the Mikdash that is being spoken about in the first part of the verse,
“The place for Your habitation, which You, O L-rd have made”
(For plainly, Bnei Yisroel said it with regard to the First Beit HaMikdash that would be built when,
“You shall bring them and plant them on the mount of Your heritage”
To note: This aspect that, “The Throne below is directly opposite the Throne above” – this is the explanation of "the place for Your habitation, which You, O L-rd have made" (as it states in the Mechilta) is in all the Temples, even in the First and Second Mikdash).
Whereas, according to Rashi, Yisroel’s intent was not regarding another Mikdash, but rather to that Mikdash in the beginning of the verse.
(However, in actuality, sin caused that this was not fulfilled, and it would not occur until the Future, as Rashi states).
Therefore, we find that we learn that there are three views in the explanation of, “The sanctuary, of the L-rd, (which) Your hands established”:
4. One could say that these three views are dependent upon the three manners in the study and interpretations (בלימוד ודרשת) of the words of the Song.
According to many commentators of the literal meaning of the verses (פשטנים), it is the manner of Scripture regarding parables and song - to repeat the aspect in different words, for the sole sake of beautifying the text (ליופי המליצה בלבד). On the other hand, when studying according to homily (Derash) – each aspect of the Song is interpreted independently.
One could say that, Rashi’s commentary on Torah is the third view – the intermediary between them:
Rashi maintains that, even in a song, there are no repetitions unless there is added a new particular or aspect.
(As it states in Rashi (in an old version) regarding the Shirat HaYam, “Very exalted (גאה גאה): The doubling of the words comes to say . . and accordingly you will find doubling in the entire song”. And Rashi explains in the verses, the reason for the repetition of the aspect).
However, on the other hand, the addition is not in a (completely) new aspect. Rather it is an additional part of that aspect
(similar to “And concerning the repetition of the dream to Pharaoh twice that is because the matter is ready (to emanate) from G-d, and G-d is hastening to execute it” – where the repetition adds force and exhortation to this matter itself).
The same applies to our verse, where there is a repetition,
“The place for Your habitation, which You, O L-rd have made. The sanctuary, of the L-rd, (which) Your hands established”.
The intent of the repetition may be explanation in three ways:
This is the difference between the three aforementioned views:
(It is just that, in actuality, this was not fulfilled when they entered the land, the First time, but rather, when will it be fulfilled – in the Future).
5. One can explain, on a deeper level, the essence of the difference between the three views, by prefacing an explanation of the reason, that in the Shirat HaYam,
(Whose theme, is thanks for the miracle for Kriat Yam Suf (the Splitting of the Sea) and the killing of the Egyptians).
“Beit HaMikdash”, and its quality,
(As it states, “the place . . The sanctuary etc.”)
is mentioned, at all. For seemingly, what relevance does it have here?
The reason that the Song mentions entering the Land, as it states, “You shall bring them and plant them on the mount of Your heritage”, is understood. For this is the continuation and completeness of the redemption from Egypt, as it states,
“I will bring you up out of the suffering of Egypt, to the land of the Canaanites”
(And as they state before this, in the Song itself - “With Your loving kindness You led the people You redeemed; You led (them) with Your might to Your holy abode”).
Therefore, since Kriat Yam Suf is the completion and conclusion to Yetziat Mitzrayim (the exodus from Egypt)
(For only then, was their fear of the Egyptians, nullified),
therefore they included it in the Shirat HaYam. For since the exodus from Egypt was completed, they were prepared for the purpose of Yetziat Mitzrayim - “You shall bring them and plant them on the mount of Your heritage”.
One could add, that this is not just a request for the Future,
(Namely, that G-d should finish the aspect of Yetziat Mitzrayim completely (לתכליתו) – which is the entering into the Land).
Rather, that even this is a part of the thanks for the past- the miracles of Kriat Yam Suf. For the miracles of Kriat Yam Suf, besides their effect upon the Egyptians
(So much so that they were annihilated to the extent that not even one of them remained),
also helped that Bnei Yisroel should be able to easily enter the Land.
This is like their saying in the Song,
“Then the chieftains of Edom were startled. . all the inhabitants of Canaan melted”.
This was their intent in saying,
“May dread and fright fall upon them . . until Your people cross over, O L-rd, until this nation that You have acquired crosses over”.
As Rashi states:
“Dread (אֵימָתָה) upon the distant ones; fright (וָפַחַד) upon the nearby ones”.
This fright remained with them until they crossed the Jordan.
(As Rashi cites from the verse of Yehoshua, “For we have heard how the L-rd dried up the water of the Red Sea etc.”)
Therefore, they said, “You shall bring them and plant them etc.” For even the manner of their entering the Land was connected with the miracles of Kriat Yam Suf, as aforementioned.
However, it is not understood:
What does the aspect of building the Beit HaMikdash, have to do here?
(With difficulty, one could say that building the Beit HaMikdash depicts the completion of entering the Land. For, as it was in actuality, the entire land was not conquered until David’s era. In addition, with regard to the essence of the matter, it is expressly states in Scripture that the building of the Beit HaMikdash came after their respite from the surrounding enemies. However, from the wording of the verses here, it implies that the aspect of the Beit HaMikdash comes here, not as a part and conclusion to the conquest and entering the Land, but rather as an independent matter and praise).
Moreover, what difference, does this aspect, that the Mikdash will be built with “Your Hand”, have here?
6. One could say that the explanation of this is:
It states at the conclusion of the Song (in the following verse):
“The L-rd will reign to all eternity”.
The Ramban explains:
“He has now shown that He is King and Ruler over everything, for He delivered His servants and destroyed His insurgents. So may it be His Will to do so in all generations forever”
In other words, the essence of the aspect of the Song, in not just praise and thanks for the essential miracles and wonders that G-d did, in destroying the Egyptians etc. Rather, it is (primarily) praise for that which, through Kriat Yam Suf, G-d’s kingdom and sovereignty was revealed - both in the essential annihilation of Pharaoh and the Egyptians, as well as in its manner. For G-d overturned the machinations of nature, and all of this was done for the salvation and Geulah of Yisroel.
The purpose of the completeness of the revelation of G-d’s kingdom, in actuality, was in the fulfillment of the command, “make a Sanctuary for Me, and I will dwell etc.” Namely, the building of the Beit HaMikdash – where He would descend to dwell on Earth” (שירד לשכון בארץ). Therefore, in the building of the First Beit HaMikdash, there was complete redemption of Yisroel from all their surrounding enemies. For there was no other ruler of the nations in the land.
This is also the theme of the building of the Mikdash with His two hands:
The plain difference between a deed (מעשה) that is done with one hand, compared to a deed that is done with two hands is that:
This is the essence of the difference between the world, which was created with one hand, and the Mikdash that was built with His two hands:
Therefore, specifically in the Beit HaMikdash was G-d’s name pronounced as it is written (קוראים את השם ככתבו).
This aspect is an all the Temples, even in the First Mikdash. In conjunction with this, the Talmud explains that this verse refers to the Temples that were the handiwork of people.
However, according to the explanation of the Mechilta and Rashi, that this verse and the following verse (“The L-rd will reign to all eternity”) are one aspect, one cannot explain that “The sanctuary, of the L-rd, (which) Your hands established” refers to the First Beit HaMikdash . For there, G-d’s kingdom was not complete – for it was destroyed. Therefore, they explain that the conclusion of the Song, namely, the completeness of G-d’s Kingdom, is the Future Beit HaMikdash.
However, in this, there is a difference between the Mechilta and Rashi, which is dependent upon the general intent of the Shirat HaYam:
The Shirat HaYam is the First Song that is expressly mentioned in the Torah. According to this it is understood that among the ten Songs that are cited in the Mechilta, it is the most inclusive Song (שירה כללית ביותר), the opening of all the Songs (הפתיחה לכל השירות).
One could say that this is why the Mechilta learns:
“It is not written ‘Then Moses sang’ but ‘then Moses will sing’ — whence we derive the resurrection of the dead from Scripture.” (נמצינו למדין תחיית המתים מן התורה)
The intent of this is that (even) in this Song, the entirety of all the Songs that refer to the Geulah of Yisroel, is included, even the Song of the Future (השירה דלעת״ל).
For just as the Geulah of Egypt was the beginning and opening of all the redemptions, even that of the Future Geulah (התחלה ופתיחה לכל הגאולות עד לגאולה העתידה). So too, the Shirat HaYam over the Geulah of Yisroel and G-d’s Kingdom, at the time Kriat Yam Suf, includes all the redemptions and the revelations of G-d’s kingdom until the end of all the generations. Namely, the Future Beit HaMikdash where, “The L-rd will reign to all eternity”.
Therefore, the Mechilta cites the parable of the,
Robbers that enter a king's palace. They despoil it . . and raze his palace. After some time, the king sits in judgment over them. . and he sits in his palace — after which his reign endures forever.
For the emphasis of the completeness of the G-d’s Kingdom, in the Future Beit HaMikdash, is in that which it comes after the destruction of the previous Temples.
However, according to Rashi, who explains the simple meaning of the verse, the essence of the aspect of the Song is - Song over the exodus of Egypt, G-d’s kingdom that comes into revelation with miracles and wonders on the Sea and the Geulah of Bnei Yisroel from Pharaoh and Egypt.
However, the completeness of this kingdom of G-d, in other words, G-d’s kingdom in the Geulah of Bnei Yisroel from Egypt, is when they come to the Land, and the building of the Beit HaMikdash through G-d, that it should be, “the entire ruling power is His”. This is the essence of the aspect of the building of the Beit HaMikdash with two hands.
7. One can explain the difference between the wording of the Mechilta, “after which his reign endures forever.” and Rashi’s wording, “the entire ruling power is His”:
There are two aspects in the revelation of the G-d’s kingdom:
The same is with G-d’s kingdom, as it states,
“He finds wind (to send) out of His treasuries. He struck down the Firstborn of Egypt”.
“Egypt” refers to constraints and boundaries, and the “Firstborn of Egypt” is the force and essence of the Klipah for which “He finds wind (to send) out of His treasuries”.
One could say that this is the difference between the Mechilta and Rashi:
In the Mechilta, the emphasis of “his reign endures forever” is (mainly) in the annihilation of the opposition, as is understood from the parable “After some time, the king sits in judgment over them. He seizes some of them. Some he kills; some he impales, and he returns to his palace — after which his reign endures forever”.
Whereas in Rashi the main aspect is not the annihilation of the opposition, but rather in that which “the entire ruling power is His”, as Rashi expressly states,
“The L-rd is our G-d; the L-rd is one” – “The L-rd, who is now our G-d and not the G-d of the other nations . . He will be (declared) in the future “the one G-d,” as it is said: “For then I will convert the peoples to a pure language that all of them call in the name of the L-rd” (Zeph. 3:9), and it is (also) said: “On that day will the L-rd be one and His name one” (Zech. 14:9)”.
MSichas Shabbat Parshat Beshalach and Shabbat Parshat Yitro 5744
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