Vol 17.38 - Bechukotai 2 Spanish French Audio Video
|Hebrew Text: Chumash-Vayikra|
(5738) Rashi (Lev. 26:9): "I will turn to you" (and the difference to Rashi Acharei 17:10 etc) and s.v."Make you fruitful And multiply you" (and the difference to Rashi Bereshit 1:22): " I will turn from all of My dealings the pay your reward" (and the connection to "labor in Torah") - according to Pnimiyut
1. On the verse (Lev. 26:9) “I will turn towards you, and I will make you fruitful and increase you, and I will set up My covenant with you”.
וּפָנִיתִי אֲלֵיכֶם וְהִפְרֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם וְהִרְבֵּיתִי אֶתְכֶם וַהֲקִימֹתִי אֶת בְּרִיתִי אִתְּכֶם
Rashi cites the words: “I will turn towards you” and explains:
“I will turn away (אֶפְנֶה) from all My affairs to pay your reward.” To what may this be compared? To a king who hired workers etc. as is taught in Torat Kohanim”
ופניתי אליכם: אפנה מכל עסקי לשלם שכרכם, משל למה הדבר דומה, למלך ששכר פועלים וכו', כדאיתא בתורת כהנים
(Only one of whom worked for him for a long time, while all the others did not. When they presented themselves to receive payment, the king quickly paid the others a small amount, while to the one who had worked long, he said, “They worked merely a little for me, but with you, I must now turn My attention to calculate the substantial amount that I owe you.” Likewise, G-d will quickly pay the nations the small amount He owes them for their little good deeds, and then He will turn His attention, as it were, to the Jewish people, to calculate their great reward)”
It is not understood:
1. What is lacking in the explanation of “I will turn away from all My affairs to pay your reward”, that Rashi must explain with a parable: “To what may this be compared? To a king who hired some workers (למלך ששכר פועלים..משל)?
2. On the other hand, if there is something that is not understood in this explanation – what does the parable: “To what may this be compared? (To a king who hired some workers)” which does not, seemingly, explain more than the commentary itself?
3. Moreover, before this in Parsha Acharei, regarding the prohibition of blood (and similarly in Parsha Kedoshim regarding the prohibition of giving of one’s children to Molech), Rashi explains similar to what he explains here (however in the opposite of good): “I will set My attention: i.e. My leisure. ‘I will make Myself free (פּוֹנֶה from all My affairs, and I will deal with this person!” - And on this he does not add a parable.
4. In the parable itself:
The words “To what may this be compared? To a king who hired workers”. For seemingly, hiring workers is not something that specifically concerns a king (and regarding him, this is also not due to his greatness as a king). Anyone can hire (hires) workers – therefore it should have stated: To what may this be compared? To a person who hired workers” - and he turns his attention from all his affairs and pays the worker who did the substantial labor.
2. Seemingly one could explain, by prefacing a question:
Since Rashi had already explained that the essence of the explanation of “I will set My attention” (ונתתי פני)
(And similarly “I will give My attention” (ואני אתן את פני))
Is “I will turn away from all My affairs etc.” – why must Rashi here, again repeat the same explanation?
(Especially that the forewarning (באווארעניש) of “I will set My attention” etc. means “My leisure. ‘I will make Myself free from all My affairs” (פנאי שלי פונה אני מכל עסקי״) is necessary only there where it states the word “Panai” (where one could mistake that this is (only) an expression of face/פנים). However - where it states “I will turn towards you” (וּפָנִיתִי אֲלֵיכֶם) which means: I will turn (קערן) to you – this is readily understood, that he turns from His other affairs)?.
The explanation in this, seemingly, is:
In Parshat Acharei, concerning the prohibition of blood (and similarly in Parshat Kedoshim, concerning giving of one’s children to Molech), it speaks regarding an individual. Therefore it is understood that the explanation of “I will set My attention: ‘I will make Myself free from all My affairs, and I will deal with him!” – is that G-d, as it were, turns from the many affairs and occupies Himself with the individual.
However in our Parsha, where it speaks about the entire nation of Yisroel (כללות עם ישראל) - “I will turn towards you” – one could ask:
Why does G-d state that “I will turn away (אֶפְנֶה) from all My (and not - from other) affairs to pay your reward.” Is it not included, in G-d’s affairs, also that which concerns Yidden, and paying the reward for the fulfillment of) Torah and Mitzvot?!
Therefore Rashi must explain in our Parsha differently - that even the “I will turn towards you” (even though it speaks of the entire nation of Yisroel) means “I will turn away from all My affairs to pay your reward.” And this is explained with a parable “To what may this be compared? To a king who hired some workers etc. (וכו׳) as it states in Torat Kohanim” –
For in Torat Kohanim it continues that:
“For he hired many workers and there was one worker who did work for him for a long time. They presented themselves to receive payment and this worker entered with them”.
The king said that first he will settle with the other many workers and pay them – and afterwards “I will turn My attention to you”.
Similarly in the lesson (נמשל), that:
“Yisroel, in this world, requests reward from the Omnipresent, and the nations of the world request reward from the Omnipresent, and the Omnipresent says to them - to Yisroel – ‘My son, I will turn My attention to you etc. However your substantial account, I will, in the future, settle with you’”
From this parable it is understood that:
1. There are other workers that G-d must give reward to, and also this one of G-d’s affairs.
2. The nations of the world are “many workers” and the Yidden, are one nation, and considered like one worker.
3. The reward to the nations is a physical reward in this world, whereas to the Yidden, it is a spiritual reward, in the world to come, as the commentators explain.
And therefore it is also understood:
1. Why even regarding the reward of the entire nation of Yisroel, it is applicable to say “I will turn away from all My affairs” meaning the “affairs” of G-d, which includes the affairs of paying the reward to the many nations. Whereas regarding: “to pay your reward”, a payment to the Yidden – which is a special sort of reward that is not similar to “all My affairs” - one must turn from this world to the world to come.
2. That he says the parable: “To what may this be compared? To a king etc. ”, for the entity of the “reward of the many workers” is much more (בהרבה ביותר) similar to the norm (הרגיל), for a king.
However, it is difficult to learn so in Rashi according to the Pshat. Since beforehand, Rashi should have also cited from Torat Kohanim, the words “for he hired many workers and there was one worker etc.“ (or at least the word many (הרבה) (workers)) - which is integral to his explanation- and not suffice with alluding to them by stating “etc. as it is cited in Torat Kohanim”.
One must therefore say that the main explanation which Rashi must have to his explanation “I will turn away from all My affairs to pay your reward” is already here in the words which Rashi cites: “To what may this be compared? To a king who hired workers”
(For from the other parts of the parable, there is no innovation in understanding the Pshat of the verse, and therefore Rashi does not suffice with “etc. as it is in Torat Kohanim”.
3. Afterwards, Rashi comments on the words:
One must understand:
In Parsha Bereshit, Rashi explains that the meaning of:
Therefore how does he learn here that “I will make you fruitful” (והפריתי) also means “and multiply you” (וְהִרְבֵּיתִי)?
The commentators say that one cannot learn here, like in Parsha Bereshit, for the word “Be fruitful (פרו)” alone is
(Exists in the nature of creation and is)
not a blessing, and since, in our Parsha, it speaks concerning G-d’s blessings to the Yidden, one must say that “I will make you fruitful” (והפריתי) also means “and I will multiply you” (וְהִרְבֵּיתִי) . Therefore the explanation of “I will multiply you” is not “multiplying” (in quantity) but rather a multitude in quality – being able to hold one’s head up high (בקומה זקופה).
It is however not understood:
In what aspect is the blessing of: “And I will make you fruitful” (והפריתי אתכם) where Rashi explains that it refers to the blessing of: “being fruitful and multiplying”?
For even “one could beget many” is seemingly not a blessing which is especially unique to the Yidden (for this also occurs by the nations)?
4. The explanation in all this is:
The difficulty in the words “I will turn towards you” is:
If one would learn that “I will turn towards you” means -
like the explanation of “I will set My attention” of Parshat Acharei (and like “I will give My attention” in Parshat Kedoshim) –
“I will turn away from all My affairs to pay your reward” - It should have been stated in the beginning of the Parsha, immediately after, “If you follow My statutes and keep My commandments and you will fulfill them” as a preface to all the auspicious events of the Parsha (or – afterwards, as their conclusion) similar to way that it actually is in Parshat Acharei (and Parshat Kedoshim).
However, since the verse states this in the middle of the prognostications and aspects of reward for the fulfillment of) Torah and Mitzvot, it is seemingly proof that “I will turn towards you” in our Parsha does not mean “I will turn away from all My affairs etc.”, but rather, it refers to a special and exact specific reward for Torah and Mitzvot (שכר פרטי מסוים ומיוחד).
Therefore Rashi must explain that even here, it means that “I will turn away from all My affairs to pay your reward” and the reason it is stated in the middle of the Parsha and not immediately at the beginning of all the blessings and reward - is explained by Rashi with the words, “To what may this be compared? To a king who hired workers” (as will be explained).
5. The reason that a regular person, or even a minister, must hire workers (for pay) in order that they do work for him, is understood, since he cannot force (צווינגען) another to work for him.
However, how is it that a king needs to hire workers?
For since he is the ruler and sovereign of the country, all the people of the country must do and carry out the will and command of the king.
It is therefore understood that it speaks here, not regarding the things that the people of the country are obligated to do for the king (or for the benefit of the country)
(Those things are done before “he hires workers”)
but rather concerning the supplementary things (צוגאב־זאכן) that are not an obligation and a necessity for the king (or for the country). Therefore – in order that also these things should be done, the king must hire workers that must be paid (dearly/ מרובה).
And this is also in the lesson:
The Parsha begins with “If you follow My statutes” which means, as Rashi explains, that “you should toil in (studying) Torah”. This means not just studying Torah according to one’s obligation, but that one should “toil in Torah”, more than is required to fulfill the simple (requirement of the) Mitzvah of Talmud Torah.
The same applies to “And keep My commandments” (which means, as Rashi states) “Labor in Torah in order to keep and fulfill etc.”
And this manner in fulfilling Torah and Mitzvot – more than the obligation according to Torah - is similar to (the parable of) a “king that hires workers”, who do a type of work that the people of the country are not obligated.
Therefore it is also understood that for such a manner of fulfilling Torah and Mitzvot, the Yidden must receive an additional and special reward.
6. With this it is understood that which “I will turn towards you” is stated in the middle of the Parsha:
Since “If you follow My statutes” etc. means –with the addition of “toiling in Torah”, it is understood that, in this, it automatically includes the obligated study of) Torah (לימוד חיובי פון תורה). As it explicitly states “And you shall keep My commandments” (for this includes Torah study).
Therefore it comes out that for fulfilling the “If you follow My statutes”, the Yidden are deserving of two types of reward:
1. Reward for the actual fulfilling of Torah and Mitzvot (in the regular manner, according to the obligation)
2. A special reward for toiling (in Torah) for the fulfillment of Torah and Mitzvot with an increase.
And with regard to this, the two types of reward are mentioned:
Beforehand the Torah states the reward for the fulfillment of Torah and Mitzvot in the regular manner, which, in general, is the reward of “I will provide the rain of your land in its time”. And afterwards, after the aforementioned reward, in the middle of the Parsha, the verse states the second type of reward (for “toiling in Torah etc.” – “I will turn towards you”.
For this Avodah, which is in a manner of “toiling in Torah” – they are given a new, higher level of reward, reward in a manner of “I will turn away from all My affairs to pay your reward”.
For the first type of reward, which comes for the fulfilling of Torah and Mitzvot in the regular manner (according to the obligation) one cannot say “I will turn away from all My affairs to pay your reward” – since (a glimmer/מעין of) the type of reward comes also to the nations of the world for their fulfillment of the Seven Noachide Commandments (and for the Torah study of those laws that they are obligated to do).
However, the special reward for the Avodah of “toiling in Torah” etc. (similar to the king who hires etc.) which does not exist by the nations of the world - these blessings therefore come in a manner of “I will turn towards you”, “I will turn away from all My affairs to pay your reward”.
(Even though Rashi states the wording (of the Torat Kohanim) a “king who hired workers” – in the plural – implying that even that others (the non-Jews) were hired (געדונגען) by the king - which means that, in the lesson (נמשל), that even regarding the nations there is a manner of Avodah which is ‘within the letter of the law’ (and therefore – even a special reward for that Avodah) – Nevertheless, this is only because, among the non-Jews also, there are the pious of the nations of the world (חסידי אומות העולם) who do more than is required from them. however even their Avodah does not approach, at all, the additional Avodah of Yidden in the manner of toiling in Torah. Therefore the reward of a Yidden is separated (אויסגעטיילט) into a manner of “I will turn away from all My affairs to pay your reward” (He turns to another type of reward -even from the “affairs” of giving the reward of the pious of the nations).
7. According to this, the continuation of Rashi’s commentary of “I will make you fruitful” - where Rashi explains that it refers to the blessing of: “being fruitful and multiplying” is also understood. Since it speaks here, not regarding the receiving of regular reward, but rather regarding an additional and special reward (in a manner of “I will turn towards you”) – which is only for Yidden (and not for the nations of the world) – one cannot say that (they are separate terms, meaning that) “I will make you fruitful” means (just) “fruitful” and “and I will multiply you” (וְהִרְבֵּיתִי) means (just) “multiplying”, since such a manner of blessing also exists for the nations of the world.
One must therefore say that “I will make you fruitful” is a special blessing which is not according to the norm – and which comes only as an outcome of “I will turn towards you”.
Therefore Rashi learns that “I will make you fruitful” alone (in and of itself) means (not just “fruitful”, but) also the aspect of “multiplying” - “one produces many”. This means that it is not only that the word “I will make you fruitful” includes both blessings of “fruitful” and “multiplying”
(Begetting one and afterward begetting many”)
but that there is an innovation in the essence of the blessing of “fruitful” – namely that the “I will make you fruitful” itself is in a manner of “multiplying”.
The “fruitful” by the nations of the world means that it is only in a manner that “one begets one” but not that the one that is born must be a “reproducer” (מוליד). He can be barren (or she can be barren). However the blessing of “I will make you fruitful” by the Yidden means that immediately, even when “one bears one” – the “one” that is born itself, is in the level of a “multiplying” (“I will multiply you” (וְהִרְבֵּיתִי)) – since from the “one”, there will be a continuation until the end of all the generations. Similar to that which is stated regarding Avraham “and I multiplied his seed, and gave him (an only son/בן יחיד) Yitzchak”. Since through Yitzchak, there came a great multitude (and how much more so will – the blessing that is also by the nations of the world that “one could beget many”- be by them - literally).
And since “I will make you fruitful” already includes the “multiplying” (a “multiplying” in quantity) (as aforementioned Par. 3) and the “multiplying” is also specifically due to the “I will turn towards you”- on this Rashi says that “I will multiply you” (וְהִרְבֵּיתִי) – is being able to hold one’s head up high (בקומה זקופה)”. This means that not only that the promise of “the older will serve the younger” will be fulfilled, but moreover that due to the “I will turn towards you”, the younger will be in a manner of “I will make you fruitful” becoming a “multitude –“ being able to hold one’s head up high”.
8. Seemingly, however, it is still not straightforward:
From the wording of Rashi: “I will turn away from all My affairs to pay your reward” (and not My “other affairs”, and so forth) it is understood that this payment of reward does not come, at all, into the category (כלל) of “My (i.e. G-d’s) affairs”. One must understand, why should the dealing of payment of reward to the Yidden not accounted in the “affairs” (עסקים) of G-d?
One must say that this “I will turn towards you”, manifests a deeper aspect than the burden (צוגעטראגנקייט) which is entailed in the aspect of “My affairs”.
One could understand this by explaining the nature of “affairs” and its meaning in its inner aspects:
“Affairs” concerning a person in this world, indicates that the person is involved in secondary thing, which is not, he himself, meaning as he is an individual (פאר זיך). This means that the involvement of the person in a matter depicts a motion (תנועה) and level which is a decline (of) compared to his essential being (עצם מהות).
And the same is also with regard to Above, as it were:
G-d is completely, not in the realm of effluence and revelation (המשכה וגילוי). Therefore, all the influences (השפעות) and effluences of G-d are called “affairs” – since they come from the level of Godly light which is in the level of effluence and descent.
And this is the meaning of “I will turn away from all My affairs to pay your reward”:
The creation of the worlds, and even the aspect of the reward and punishment, in general, and even for the Yidden, is only from ‘Orot’ – lights – and revelations. Therefore it is all included in the “affairs” of G-d (like G-d’s essence –Atzmut- is contracted in a motion of effluence, in the Ten Sefirot etc.).
When however, the Avodah of Yidden is in a manner of “toiling in Torah”, more than is required from him, according to the command – this means that his fulfillment of Torah and Mitzvot is, for him, not like a “business/עסק” which is done just with his revealed powers and the outwardness of his soul (חיצוניות הנפש) , but rather he is engaged in this with his pnimiyut of his soul (and therefore he does more than he is obligated to do so) – this evokes also the same from Above – that it becomes: “I will turn towards you”. G-d turns Himself to the Yidden with His Pnimiyut and essence (higher that all the “lights” and revelations – “I will turn away from all My affairs”), so much so that it becomes Yisroel and G-d are all one (ישראל וקוב״ה כולא חד).
9. Another aspect in this:
The realm of a created being is that which he is a receiver (מקבל). This is also manifested by the highest creations. And even the general nature of the loftiest lights and revelations – is that they receive from a higher source (and therefore it is not applicable that they possess the true aspect of “Mashpia” (giver) - without any relation to receiving – for this is only in Atzmut.
Therefore, when Yidden study Torah and fulfill Mitzvot, as much as they are commanded to do, they are “receivers/מקבלים׳” – they receive and obey G-d’s commands. When however there is the “toiling in Torah”, more than what is demanded because of the command, it is already (also) an aspect of “Mashpia” – giving - in which he exerts (מייגע) and acts with his own power. Therefore he is similar to his Creator (דומה לבוראו) – his root in in Atzmut –G-d – is revealed in the person below. Therefore, also the reward is from Atzmut, “I will turn towards you”, “I will turn away from all My affairs to pay your reward”.
Therefore, the reward comes (from “I will turn towards you”) down, primarily (לכל לראש), in “I will make you fruitful with “fruitfulness and multiplying” - as aspect of effluence – since
(In addition to that which the aspect of reproduction, in general, is the power of G-d (כח הא"ס) is)
when this is due to the “I will turn towards you”, the “I will make you fruitful” itself becomes in a manner of “fruitful and multiplying”. And this is similar to the aforementioned, that even every particular, individual birth is in a manner of G-d until the end of all the generations (א״ס עד סוף כל הדורות), as aforementioned.
10. One must however understand:
In the continuation of the blessings after “I will turn towards you”, the verse mentions many (כמה וכמה) aspects of reward in physical aspects. What connection, seemingly, does the multitude in physicality have to do with the aspect of “I will turn towards you” - of G-d’s Essence (Atzmut)?
The explanation in this is:
If it would be speaking of the reward of ‘lights’ and effluences (אורות והשפעות) which are limited in the boundary of bli gevul (or at least in the boundary of “revelation”) and therefore cannot be revealed, below, in their loftiness and level - but rather only, specifically, in a manner of contraction and diminishing (צמצום און מיעוט) in the effluence – then a greater and loftier blessing would have meant - a higher “revelation” in spiritual matters.
Since however, the “I will turn towards you” is from G-d’s Essence, which is not limited with any boundary, therefore the blessing also comes down (and specifically) in physical aspects - in a multitude in physicality in the best revealed and visible manner (בטוב הנראה והנגלה) without any contractions – the way it is from G-d’s Essence.
11. It is, however, still not straightforward:
1. Although it is true that from G-d’s perspective, the blessing (also) comes down in a multitude in physicality – however what regard (תפיסת מקום ) does this reward have, in comparison to that which, through the “I will turn towards you”, of G-d’s Essence, the Yidden become one thing, as it were, with G-d?
2. Even the aspect of “I will turn towards you”, itself, Rashi says that it is “to pay your reward”. This means that it is an aspect of reward. The understanding, seemingly, of the word “reward” means that it is a thing that is a payment (באלוינונג) for the labor, however the “worker” (פועל) and the king remain separate beings.
It is not understood:
One could understand this, if it would be speaking regarding a reward of revelations (גילויים). Therefore, just as it is not applicable that in them, G-d’s Essence is manifested (אויסזאג)
(But just that G-d’s Essence is in a motion of effluence and contraction)
They also do not take, through this, the essence of a Yid. That they should be one with the Yid.
However since it speaks here, concerning the “I will turn towards you” - of G-d’s Essence – how does the wording “to pay your reward”, fit here?
12. The explanation in this is:
In the Avodah of “toiling in Torah” itself – which is taken from the Pnimiyut and essence of the soul – there are two manners:
1. The person, indeed, does this from the essence of his soul, however there is, a qualification and motive (חשבון און מבוקש). He wants to become one with G-d. Yet since his own desire is involved here, this, itself, is an indication that there is a minute place (עפעס אן ארט) for a being that is not G-d – there is the “he” which wants to become one with G-d.
2. The person does this without any qualification or motive, not even (for the goal) to become one with G-d (his only objective is to fulfill the Supernal Will). Therefore, in this there are no limitations. And in this manner of Avodah, nothing has a place, except for G-d.
And because of the two manners in Avodah, there are here two manners in the “I will turn towards you”:
When the Avodah is in the first manner, where there remains a minute recognition of his own being (that ‘he’ wants to become one with G-d) – then even the “I will turn towards you” (the unification of the Yidden with G-d’s Essence, which comes through the “toiling in Torah”) is in a manner that the Yid remains in his “being” (מציאות) and therefore it is called an aspect of “reward”.
(Therefore, the Torah delineates the physical events which will occur because of the “I will turn towards you” – for since there still remains a place for his being, there is a minute place for his needs – also physical needs etc.)
Whereas when the Avodah is at the epitome of completeness, without and motive or purpose – then the aspect of “I will turn towards you” is in the epitome of completeness, as it states in the conclusion of the Parsha “and I lead you upright” (וָאוֹלֵךְ אֶתְכֶם קוֹמְמִיּוּת) meaning that the uprightness of G-d and the uprightness of the Yidden become one uprightness (that are included in the word–“ קוֹמְמִיּוּת”), Yisroel and the King exclusively alone (ישראל ומלכא בלחודוהי).
mSichas Shabbat Parshat Behar – Bechukotai 5734
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