Vol 15.09 - Noach 4 Spanish French Audio Video
|Hebrew Text: Avot-Chapter 3 Rambam-Melachim|
1. It states in the Mishnah (Avot 3:14):
“Beloved is man, for he was created in the image (of G-d); it is a sign of even greater love that it has been made known to him that he was created in the image, as it is says, "For in the image of G-d, He made man".
Tosafot Yom Tov states that since the Tanna cites the verse “For in the image of G-d, He made man etc." which was said regarding Noach and his sons, it is understood, that with the words “Beloved is man et”, it means people, in general, (including also) Bnei Noach.
With this, he explains the difference in wording:
For in this section the Tanna uses the appellation (Beloved) is man ((חביב) אדם) (for he was created in the image), whereas in the following sections, he uses the wording (Beloved) are Yisroel ((חביבין) ישראל).
The difference of this with regard to Yidden – namely because of which, this aspect was placed in Tractate Avot, which are lessons for Yidden in their Avodot, are, as he explains, according to the ruling in Rambam:
“Moshe (peace upon him) was commanded by the Almighty to compel all the inhabitants of the world to accept the commandments given to Noah's descendants”. And they must fulfill these Mitzvot (not because of “intellectual conviction” (הכרע הדעת), but) “because the Holy One, blessed be He, commanded them in the Torah”.
And this is what the Tanna means by “Beloved is man, for he was created in the image”. For with this he shows how a Yid must (and can) influence “all the inhabitants of the world” to follow al of G-d’s Mitzvot that are incumbent upon them – by explaining their dearness, that “they were created in His image”. therefore it is “upon him to do the Will of His Master“.
2. It is understood and plain that even though the word “man/Adam” here refers to the entire species of man, that it also includes a Jewish person, who certainly was created in (G-d’s) image.
This fits with the explanation of the Rebbe Rayatz that “image” refers to the rational soul (נפש השכלית) which exists both within Yidden as well as Bnei Noach.
And the repetition of the words “Beloved is man, for he was created in the image; it is a sign of even greater love that it has been made known to him that he was created in the image“ refers to the two levels of “image” :
Even though, from this itself, namely that the aspect of the “image” is a common factor between Yidden and Ben Noach, it is understood that even the “image” of a Yid is
(Not so much because of the aspects and Avodah, in which he is completely distinguished from a Ben Noach. For the alacrity (זירוז) for these aspects comes in the following sections (and virtues/ מעלות) in the Mishnah, as it states: “Beloved are Israel - for they are called children of G‑d . . for they were given a precious article. These (qualities and) dearness’ which are distinguished for Yidden themselves – but primarily)
because of his Avodah, as and with Bnei Noach.
This means that even this Avodah concerns (not just that a Ben Noach is “created in His image” – because of which it is “upon him to do the Will of His Master“, but also) that there is a level of “image” in the Yidden (however, he is higher than the level of “image” in the general species of man).
One must understand:
What is unique in the aspect of “Beloved is man, for he was created in the image” –
with regard to that which a Ben Noach must do “the Will of His Master “ because he was “created in the image” (like the explanation of the Tosafot Yom Tov) –
that even for a Yid, is the very quality and dearness (however, in a higher manner, “it is a sign of even greater love that it has been made known to them etc.”)?
3. Similarly, one must understand the aforementioned Halacha of Rambam, that there is a command to Yidden “to compel all the inhabitants of the world to accept the commandments given to Noah's descendants”. And more than this – to see that the fulfillment of their Mitzvot should be (not because of “intellectual conviction “) but rather because “the Holy One, blessed be He, commanded them in the Torah and informed us through Moshe, our teacher, that Noah's descendants had been commanded to fulfill them previously “.
For this is puzzling, in general:
Why is the fulfillment of the Mitzvot of Bnei Noach connected with Yidden (that they must see “to compel all the inhabitants of the world“) to fulfill these Mitzvot) and with Matan Torah (and Moshe Rabbeinu)?
Regarding the command on Yidden, one could at least explain that G-d wants that Yidden should be involved with “improving the entire world, motivating all the nations to serve G-d“. Therefore they must influence “all the inhabitants of the world“ to fulfill the will of G-d.
However, it is not understood:
Why must Bnei Noach fulfill their Mitzvot (not because G-d commanded them via His command to Adam HaRishon – but) because “He commanded them in the Torah and informed us through Moshe, our teacher “?
One can well understand why Yidden must fulfill all of their Mitzvot – even those that they were not commanded to do so before Matan Torah (like Mitzvat Mila) - because of G-d’s command to Moshe Rabbeinu, peace upon him, at Sinai. For Matan Torah accomplished a radical change in Yidden. For that is when G-d chose them. Therefore, there was a change even in their (previous) Mitzvot.
However, what relation, does Matan Torah have to do with Bnei Noach. Namely, to say that before Matan Torah they must fulfill these Mitzvot because of G-d’s command to Adam HaRishon. Yet after Matan Torah – it is because of G-d’s command to them “in the Torah and informed us through Moshe, our teacher“?
4. One can understand this by prefacing the explanation of the Rebbe Rayatz in the advantage of the rational soul (“image”) of a Yid versus the rational soul in the general species of man. Namely that “in it (the rational soul of a Jewish soul) one feels a spiritual refinedness (רוחניות׳דיקע איידלקייט). And even though he possesses human intellect by nature, he has an impulse toward spiritual refinedness (האט ער א קלעפ צו רוחניות׳דיקע איידלקייט).
Whereas the rational soul of a non-Jew is a physical understanding (מגושם׳דיקער פארשטאנד). And as it is explained in many places regarding the study of secular knowledge, that they bring to the person a feeling of self (yeshut/ ישות). So much so, that it leads him to coarseness etc.
This seemingly requires explanation:
The aspect of intellect is to clarify the “truth” of a matter. Which is why the point of intellect is to carry oneself to a higher level (one that is higher than his own tendencies and biases – of) himself – “the spirit of . . men is that which ascends on High“. Not like an animal which is “the spirit of the beast is that which descends below to the earth“(Kohelet 3:21).
Therefore, how is it that the nature of the rational soul of Bnei Noach is the opposite. Namely to degrade the person into coarseness?
One can understand the intellect of the Animal Soul (נפש הבהמית) – the intellect that concerns Middot. For since that intellect is for the sake of Middot, whose aspect is “a feeling of self”, it is understood that even this intellect, which is for the sake of Middot, brings one to selfness (yeshut), and from this – to coarseness.
However, with regard to the rational soul (even that of a Ben Noach) it is not for the sake of Middot, but it is intellect for the aspect of the intellect itself – like the study of technical knowledge, and so forth. Therefore, why should this intellect lead one to selfness and coarseness?
The explanation of this is:
The property (אייגנשאפט) of intellect to carry one to a higher level in oneself, is connected with that which the person does not consider (his inclinations etc. – with) himself, his self-abnegation. And since this intellect, of the rational soul, is in aspects of the world whose aspect is selfness and its existence (ישות ומציאות), therefore even in this intellect there is a feeling of selfness, which does not allow carrying it to a higher level than oneself, properly.
And the reason that the rational soul of a Yid - which is also an intellect in worldly aspects (human intellect) – does have “an impulse toward spiritual refinedness “is (not so much due to himself, but rather) since a Yid has a G-dly soul (נפש האלקית) which is higher than the world. This effects a bitul also in his rational soul. Therefore in the rational soul of Yisroel there are both things “even though he possesses human intellect (שכל אנושי) by nature, he has an impulse toward spiritual refinedness“, as aforementioned.
5. With this, one can also explain how the aforementioned explanation of the Rebbe Rayatz in the Mishnah that:
is alluded to in the Mishnah:
And this is the difference between “image” of a Ben Noach and “image” of a Yid:
(not due to the image, but rather, it is the opposite -)
because since he is dear, he was given the “image”.
Because he is a Yid – It is a sign of even greater love that it has been made known to him (so much so ) that he was created in the image. Therefore, he was created in His image. He was given a rational soul. And specifically then is the intellect (also) of a rational soul complete. (He possesses the nature of “the spirit of . . men is that which ascends on High“).
6. This is also the explanation in the aforementioned Halacha of Rambam, namely that a Yid must compel “all the inhabitants of the world to accept the commandments given to Noah's descendants“:
In order that the Avodah of a Ben Noach, in the fulfilling of his Mitzvot be proper, it cannot be dependent on his “intellectual conviction“. For his rational soul can lead him to coarseness etc. However, it must be connected with a Yid. When the (rational soul of a) Ben Noach is conducted (אנגעפירט) by a Yid, whose “image” (rational soul) is complete, then even the Ben Noach enters into a condition of “the spirit of . . men is that which ascends on High“.
Therefore, in the “Beloved is man (Ben Noach), for he was created in the image” it matters even the “It is a sign of even greater love that it has been made known to him (to a Yid) that he was created in the image” (as aforementioned, par 2). For a Ben Noach must realize that the completeness of his “image” is dependent in the “image” of a Yid.
And since the image of Bnei Yisroel is a result of his having a G-dly soul, the cause (די סיבה) influences the (surrounding) effect (מסובב) in way that resembles its property- namely, the nature of the bitul in the rational soul (as aforementioned ). Therefore the completeness of the Avodah of a Ben Noach which brings him into the category of “the pious among the gentiles” is connected with that of his doing his Mitzvot since “He commanded them in the Torah and informed us through Moshe, our teacher “. Namely that he does this as a result of the revelation of Matan Torah, when Yidden received their (quality/ מעלה-) of the essence of dearness (“חביבות עצמית “) (Beloved are Israel, for they were given a precious article).
(With this, it is also understood the continuation of Rambam:
“However, if he fulfills them out of intellectual conviction, he is not a resident alien, nor of 'the pious among the gentiles,' nor of their wise men. “
For this is seemingly puzzling:
Since he fulfills them “out of intellectual conviction“, why is he “not of their wise men “?
However, when a Ben Noach lacks the recognition that he is dependent on a Yid and Matan Torah, in the end it becomes a deficiency also in his intellect).
7. According to all of the above, one can also understand the common point of the repetition of the wording of the Mishnah in the first section versus the following two sections, where it states:
Even in these two sections, the Rebbe Rayatz explains the double wording in each section:
that it refers to two difference levels:
Even in this, the intent is
(similar to the aforementioned , with regard to the double wording in the first section)
that “Beloved are Israel” is dependent in the “. it is a sign of even greater love that it has been made known to them etc.” .
The dearness of the “bodies of Yisroel” is dependent of the “virtue of the soul”. As has been explained at length, that G-d‘s choosing of the body of a Yid becomes established (נקבע) in the body in its Pnimiyut, through the Avodah of the soul
(Because of which there can be an existence of “those who do not have a portion in the World to Come“ – their bodies are destroyed (שגופן כלה) – even though regarding the soul of a Yid, the aspect of loss, G-d forbid, is not applicable).
Similarly, it is with regard to the Revealed and Pnimiyut parts of the Torah. When one learns the revealed Torah and it is complemented with Pnimiyut HaTorah, the study of the revealed part – becomes for him and elixir of life.
M’maamer and Sicha Shabbat Parshat Shlach 5737
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