Vol 14.18 - Rosh HaShannah                  Spanish French Audio  Video

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  (5735) The advantage of the scond day of Rosh HaShannah when the first day of Yom Tov falls on Shabbat; The renewal of Creation on Rosh HaShannah ina manner that emphasizes its purpose. Explanation of Rambam ( Hil. Tshuva 3:4) "Even though the sounding of shofar is a Divine decree, there lies within a spiritual hint."


 1.The second day of the Yom Tov  of Rosh Hashanah is different from the second day of Yom Tov  of other Yomim Tovim with reference to the first day of Yom Tov and to the essence and concept of the holiday.

And as understood from actual halacha ( where all Jews are equal ) that something that’s Nolad (created or born) or an animal that’s milked on the first day of Rosh Hashanah is forbidden also on the second day of Rosh Hashanah ( as opposed to other second days of other Yomim Tovim where its permitted.) the reason is because the two days of  Rosh Hashanah are considered "like one long day"

And specifically according to Pnimiyut (inner dimension). For it is mentioned in Likkutei Torah on the possuk:  "Yechayeinu MiYomayim" (He will heal us after two days; on the third day He will raise us up and we will live before Him(Hosheia 6:2)) - that "Yomaim refers to the two days of Rosh Hashanah,  because Rosh Hashanah  is always two days even when they sanctified the month visually according to witnesses". And as is explained in the maamer that "in the two days of Rosh Hashanah  there are elevation of the worlds - the first day is the inner level (pnimiyut) and the second day is the external level(chitzoyniut)". From this it is understood that the two days of Rosh Hashanah are one theme - elevation of worlds.

But in this itself there are two aspects.

The connection of the second day of Rosh Hashanah to the (first day and to) the essential theme of Rosh Hashanah is recognizable and distinguished even more so in this year’s calendar setup, where the Yom Tov  of Rosh Hashanah  begins on Shabbos, as will be explained.

2. In the prayers of Rosh Hashanah we say "This day is the beginning of Your acts ( a remembrance of the first day".  From the wording "Your acts" (in plural) it is understood that "This day" is not  only the "beginning" man's specific creation,  who was created on Rosh Hashanah, but it is also the "beginning" of all the works of Hashem - also those that were created on the five days that preceded mans' creation. (as explained in length in the Chassidic teachings of Rosh Hashanah)

In other words the renewal of creation on Rosh Hashanah  is not just a specific aspect for man alone, but it encompasses all worlds and the order of development of the lower worlds(Seder Hishtalshelus) etc.  Yet the renewal of the worlds is on the day that man was created.

And the reason is: the purpose of all the Hishtalshelus and the contractions, coverings and barriers etc. is in order to create this physical world - because Hashem desired a dwelling place in this world (lower realms).

There are two aspects to this:

1)    What is not known and understood is: Why did G-d want a dwelling place below? For there is no reason for this, and it’s above any reasoning. It is only because He "desired" it.  And as is explained in the Chassidic discourse "Rosh Hashanah  5666", concerning the statement of the Alter Rebbe that "for a desire,  there is no question (Kashya)".  The intent of this is that it’s completely above reasoning.

2)  For what purpose Hashem desired is known - namely that the intent  and purpose of the Creation (of the worlds)  -  is that He should have a dwelling place in this world (lower realms)

However, if only because of this, it’s still not understood the purpose of the creation of all of the upper worlds etc. For Hashem could have created the "lower realms" alone and they would have been a dwelling place for Hashem?

One could say the explanation for this is: that the desire and intent of Hashem was not just that His dwelling place be in the lower realms. Rather (the intent) is that the "lower" creations should themselves make a "dwelling" for Hashem. In other words, specifically through their Avoda and efforts.  And this is possible only through their creation in a manner where the entire order of development of the lower worlds(Seder Hishtalshelus) and chain of events form above to below, preceded their creation (as is explained in Chassidus).

From this it is understood why Rosh HaShanah is the "beginning of Your acts"(plural). For not only is the creation of man renewed on Rosh HaShanah, but all  creation of the six preceding days etc, because the whole essence and purpose of their creation is in order that man “through his dealing with them, and through them, makes a dwelling place for Hashem in this world. And therefore they are also renewed (re-created) when man is renewed -  (who is) the sole purpose of their existence.

And even though in the beginning of creation the purpose of all the created beings was for mans’ service to Hashem. Nevertheless they were not created at the same time as Man, but preceded him. This was because then, at the beginning of their creation they were still at a level of preparation and potential to their final purpose of their creation (Man).

In other words, the purpose of their creation was that man should find (afterwards) "everything prepared" for his service. Which is not the case at the time of the renewal of creation every year, (and specifically after Matan Torah) where man is already in the process of serving (G-d).  And in this Man is actually affecting "their purpose" of all creation - and therefore their renewal is also dependent upon their essence and purpose  - Man.
3. Since Rosh Hashanah  is the renewal of all worlds etc. in a way which stresses their purpose: To make a dwelling place for Hashem in this world - one must say that also in the Mitzvot of the day of Rosh Hashanah  (which is the service of man on this day, and effects the renewal of all creation and worlds) that the concept of  "Hashem desired a dwelling place in this world (lower realms)" is pronounced.

And the explanation is : Chazal state "the commandment of the day is with the Shofar". And as in stated in Rambam:: "Even though the sounding of shofar is a Divine decree, there lies within a spiritual hint. As if it is announcing: Awake sleepers from our sleep and unconscious ones end your slumber! (Hilchot Tshuva 3:4)"

At first glance, the Chiddush (innovation) of the Rambam here in Hilchot Tshuva is to tell us that "the sounding of shofar (tekiyat Shofar) has a hint"  namely the concept of Teshuva.  But why does he preface (in Hilchot Tshuva) that the sounding of Shofar is a divine decree?

A different approach: Even if one wishes to say that Tekiyat Shofar has a reason (such as what Rav Sadya Gaon writes as quoted by Avudrham),  there could (also) be a hint (remez) - like we find in many Mitzvot.

One must therefore say that all this is a Chiddush (innovation) of the Rambam. That in Tekiyat Shofar there are two concepts:  the divine decree and the its hint - which is the Avodah  of Tshuva.  

The Midrash states on the possuk: "I said I will be wise; but is far from me" (Kohelet 7:23) that King Shlomo didn’t understand the reason of the mitzvah of Parah (Adumah - the red heifer) and that only to Moshe did Hashem say " to you I will reveal the reason of the heifer." In other words, even though the mitzvah of the  heifer is a "statute of the Torah" something above reason, it’s not that it is essentially completely devoid of any reasoning (for it was revealed to Moshe), rather King Shlomo didn’t understand it.

And this is the intent of the Rambam when he stressed ( and in preface that there is a "hint" to it") that Tekiyat Shofar, is a divine decree: For the explanation is not that the Mitzvah of Tekiyat Shofar has a reason, but the reason it is not explained is because it is not allowed to be revealed for whatever reason. Rather, essentially (shofar) is a divine decree which is above reason.

And the reason is that Tekiyat Shofar is on a very high level, which is above any connection to reason and intellect.

And according to this, the Mitzvah of Tekiyat Shofar which is a divine decree above  reason is similar to the concept of "G-d desiring a dwelling place below" which is above any reason (as explained). 
Yet nevertheless, there is within a spiritual hint. As if it is announcing: Awake sleepers from your sleep etc"  for Shofar is indicative of the general Avodah (service) of man which can be divided into two parts: "Awake sleepers etc" which is turning from evil,  and  "improve your actions" which is doing good.
And therefore Rambam includes both (these concepts) together. That Tekiyat Shofar is a divine decree and a spiritual hint: For even though the essence of  Shofar is above reason and emanates from a level above reason ( revelation /Giluim) still one is able to reach this level specifically through man’s Avodah: and this is the same theme as G-d’s desiring a dwelling etc (as explained): The essence of the level of "G-d’s desiring" is above reason, However, the dwelling itself that G-d desires comes specifically through man’s Avodah (as explained)
And this explains why the Mitzvah of Rosh Hashanah is with the Shofar - for its nature and purpose correspond to the intent and purpose of the creation of all the worlds ( that G-d desired) that are renewed on Rosh Hashanah.
4. When Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbat (like this year), the day of Rosh Hashanah lacks this concept of Shofar, that renewal comes through man’s service.
For even though Shabbat itself causes and draws down all of the flows (hamshachot/drawing down) and renewal that Shofar accomplishes (which is why we do not sound it then, as explained in Chassidut), yet this essential aspect is missing “that renewal should come through man’s service.For the renewal of the world comes then (on Shabbat) through the power of Shabbat itself whose essence is "permanently sanctified" (miKadsha v’Kaima) without Tekiyat Shofar.
And this concept of Shofar , that renewal comes through man’s service ( the concept of Rosh Hashanah) is stressed (this year’s calendar setup) only on the second day of Rosh Hashanah when we sound the Shofar, and all the aspects of Rosh Hashanah  come through man’s service.
[Moreover, even though this year Shabbat literally replaces Shofar for all aspects, nevertheless one physically does not hear the sound of the Shofar so that it should affect the body to awaken. Whereas, on the second day of Rosh Hashanah when we sound the Shofar, its sound is physically heard even to another - even to non-Jews hearing it and this also causes his body to remember the sovereignty of the King of all Kings (G-d) hinted in Tekiyat Shofar.  As explained by R’ Saadia Gaon according to the posuk: "With trumpets and the sound of the Shofar make a call out before the King, G-d" (Psalms 98:6.): and to remember the Shofar of Matan Torah (when we received the Torah) ( which is relevant to Tekiyat Shofar  of Rosh Hashanah )  - even before we say the passages of shofrot. (the part of the Amidah that recalls the shofar)
5. This is the advantage of the calendar setup (like this year) when Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbat, for it stresses the advantage of man’s Avodah even more than when the first day of Yom Tov of Rosh Hashanah falls on any other day of the week  (explained) according to P’Shat ( simple terms):
On those years the main renewal comes through the Mitzvah of the day through man’s service (Tekiyat Shofar). However, when Rosh Hashanah begins on Shabbat, the renewal is accomplished without his Avodah. Nevertheless, we say to the person: Even though on the first day, the world is renewed completelyand fully (for it is accomplished through the power of Shabbat itself whose essence is "permanently sanctified" (miKadsha v’Kaima) from Above), Still, after all this, your Avodah is required in this and when the second day arrives you must sound the Shofar.
And this is the lesson for everyone (specifically on this calendar year): The obligation to serve is not just when there is something lacking that needs repair and that through one’s Avodah it is fixed and completed; Rather, even when the thing is completely fixed and complete, through Tzaddikim or even through G-d, the "Tzaddik" of the world. Even then G-d requires the Avodah of "lowly" (Tachton) man.
And so much so that, without his Avodah, the completeness of the thing is not truly complete. And even the Garden of Eden (Gan Eden)  where G-d Himself, planted the garden in Eden from the East, He nevertheless required man to "tend it and watch it".
Even according to Pnimiyut ( Paragraph 1) - that the first day is the elevation of worlds at the inner level (pnimiyut) and the second day at the external level (chitzoyniut)"
The calendar setup where Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbat stresses more the importance of man’s Avodah. On the first day, where the world is renewed through the power of Shabbat which is "permanently sanctified" (miKadsha v’Kaima) , the aspect of Tekiyat Shofar is not recognizable or revealed in this physical world. There is no blessing on the Shofar or Shechiyanu blessing.
However on the second day, when man sounds the Shofar, he blesses (and draws down) "(G-d) who has sanctified us with His commandments, and has commanded us to ..."  (commanded  is the same expression as "connecting and joining to G-d" ("tzavta v'chibur,") and he does not require a new garment 1, he can simply make the  blessing: "who has kept us alive, sustained us and permitted us to reach this season"
( Second dayRosh HaShanah 5733)

1) The 48 hours of Rosh Hashanah are not seen as two days, but rather as "one long day".Due to this second reason it is doubtful whether one should make the Shehecheyanu blessing on the second night/day of Rosh Hashanah. One can wear a new garment, which is also sufficient reason to make a Shehecheyanu, and this is actually what the Shofar blower does on the second day of Rosh Hashanah. Shulchan Aruch Orach Chayim 600:2, and Magen David ibid. See Shulchan Aruch Harav chapter 600 for a detailed explanation.


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