Vol 11.20 - Vayakhel 1 Spanish French Audio Video
|Hebrew Text: Chumash-Shmot
1. It has already been mentioned many times, that Rashi’s style, in his commentary on Torah, is to explain all things that are difficult in the simple meaning of the verse. Moreover, in a place that there arises a question in the simple understanding of the verses, and Rashi does not address it and resolve it – this is itself a proof that, for Rashi, this is not a question, at all. Therefore, there is no need to note it and explanation it, for the matter is self-understood and self–explanatory.
According to this one must understand Rashi’s reason for not noting and resolving many simple questions, that seemingly, arise in the study of the first verses of our Parsha:
In the beginning of the Sidra, it states,
“Moshe assembled the entire congregation of the children of Israel to assemble, and he said to them: "These are the things that the L-rd commanded to make. Six days work may be done, but on the seventh day etc. “
Namely, the command for keeping Shabbat.
Immediately after this, the command for the work of the Mishkan is stated and Scripture prefaces another time:
“And Moshe spoke . . saying: "This is the word that the L-rd has commanded to say: 'Take from yourselves an offering for the L-rd etc.“
In other words, both of them contain:
On must understand:
“Moshe assembled . . and he said to them: "These are the things . . Six days . .'Take from yourselves etc.“?
Especially since it is explained in Rashi on the verse “Six days”:
“He (Moshe) prefaced (the discussion of the details of) the work of the Mishkan with the warning (of the prohibition of labor on) the Shabbat, saying, in effect, that it (i.e., the work of the Mishkan) does not supersede the Shabbat”.
In other words, the command for observing Shabbat here is just a preface to the (primary) command of the work of the Mishkan – it is a detail of the laws of the work of the Mishkan.
According to this, it is even more problematic why this comes in two separate verses?
"(These are the things that the L-rd commanded) to make (לעשות). (Six days etc.)
Seemingly, the words “to make (לעשות) them” are superfluous, and it should have written,
“that the L-rd commanded): (Six days etc.)”?
(or “that the L-rd commanded) saying (לאמר). (Six days etc.) like in most places and like the command of the work of the Mishkan that comes immediately after this)?
3. The command for observing Shabbat here is not on a positive deed (פעולה חיובית) – a command of an active Mitzvah (קום ועשה), rather a command to refrain oneself from action– the negation of deed. If so, indeed, (not only are these words superfluous here, but rather) the wording of “deed” (עשי׳) does not fit. Especially when it is stated next to the command for the work of the Mishkan, which is a command for a positive (deed) – “Take from yourselves an offering”.
Just the opposite (כלפי לייא) – there this wording (to make (לעשות)) is not written?
4. According to Rashi (which is cited previously), that the main intent in the warning for Shabbat here (is not to warn regarding the general aspect of observing Shabbat, but rather) to inform regarding the detail to admonish that the work of the Mishkan does not supersede the prohibition of labor on Shabbat, he should have first commanded them regarding the work of the Mishkan, and afterward add the detail, and command regarding Shabbat, “to say that it does not supersede Shabbat” ?
This is opposite of the order in which Moshe heard these commands from G-d:
“You must still preserve My Shabbat” (אך את שבתותי תשמרו גו')
And as Rashi explains,
“let it not be an easy matter for you to set the Shabbat aside on account of that work.” (– the work of the Mishkan).
“Though you may be preoccupied in the rush of the work (of the Mishkan), nevertheless Shabbat should not be set aside on account of it. (for every time the words אך or רק appear they convey the idea of limiting or excluding. (אכין ורקין מיעוטין ) - to exclude Shabbat from any work of the Mishkan.”
2. The explanation of this is:
At the time of the command for the work of the Mishkan, when Moshe repeated it and commanded the admonition of Shabbat “To say that the work of the Mishkan does not supersede the Shabbat” – even though a specific command is now being said to him (in Parshat Tisa), nevertheless when he conveyed the admonition to Bnei Yisroel, he said the first and primary command – the admonition of Shabbat that is in the Ten Commandments,
Moreover: he precisely noted and emphasized that this is the command that was said to them at the Ten Commandments, in order to explain (לנמק) why the prohibition of labor on Shabbat is not superseded by the work of the Mishkan.
The commands that were said at the Ten Commandments contain a special importance (חשיבות מיוחדת).
And Rashi explains
According to this, we find that all the Ten Commandments (not just the first two Commandments) were heard by Bnei Yisroel from G-d.
“He later explained each statement . . individually”,
although “they did not hear from the Al-mighty except “I am…” and “You shall not have”. Whereas regarding the other Commandments,
“Moshe would speak and make the Decalogue heard to Israel”
Nevertheless, even in this (Moshe’s) repetition, there is a special quality and importance compared to all the other commands of the Torah that they heard from Moshe (including the commands of Parsha Tisa)
For this was the explanation of the Word that they heard from G-d (in the first Commandment)
(another aspect to this: In the command of observing Shabbat in the Ten Commandments, it includes (and is repeated) also the commands given at “Marah”, as it states (in the Ten Commandments in Parsha Va’etchanan)
“as the L-rd, your G-d, commanded you”)
And as Rashi explains,
“as you were commanded to do so before the giving of the Torah at Marah”)
Therefore, Moshe repeated the command of the Ten Commandments since (in addition to the essential importance of this command) with this he told them the explanation (in the simple meaning of the verse) why the work of the Mishkan does not supersede Shabbat.
Although the work of the Mishkan is a critical aspect as G-d said,
“Make for Me a Sanctuary and I will dwell among you”,
that through the Mishkan, the Shechinah rested among Yisroel. Nevertheless, it is understood that it is impossible that this command, that they are now being commanded by Moshe, should supersede the Mitzvah of Shabbat which is one of the Ten Commandments, that each one of Yisroel heard from G-d Himself.
(that the admonition on the prohibition of labor on Shabbat is a command that they themselves heard from G-d at the Ten Commandments)
is explained by the precise wording, “(that G-d commanded) to do (לעשות)”.
At the Ten Commandments, they were commanded (not just on the prohibition (and negation) of labor on Shabbat, but rather also),
“Remember the Shabbat day to sanctify it.”
In other words, a Positive command.
As Rashi states:
“Take heed to constantly remember the Shabbat day”
Regarding this command, the wording la properly fits – for it is an actual deed (עשי׳ בפועל)
Therefore, the command for the admonition of Shabbat and on the work of the Mishkan are separated into two separate statements (The verses twice state, “and He said”).
For these two commands are from two completely separate types:
According to the aforementioned, it is understood why Moshe prefaced the command and admonition of Shabbat to the command of the work of the Mishkan (even though the command of Shabbat is a detail of the manner of the work of the Mishkan).
(This is in addition to that which this is the order in which he heard the commands from G-d ( for this is the command for Shabbat that they already heard at the Ten Commandments, as aforementioned).
For through this, he alluded to the special quality and importance of Shabbat which precedes (in quality) the command of the work of the Mishkan. Therefore, due the reason of its lofty importance, it is not superseded due of the work of the Mishkan.
4. The lesson from all this in Avodat HaAdam is:
Although the command and admonition of the prohibition of labor on Shabbat, here, is just a detail of the command of the work of the Mishkan,
(“To say that the work of the Mishkan does not supersede the Shabbat”).
Nevertheless, Moshe made it a primary aspect, in itself, and admonished them with a special statement, independently.
Because of this, he repeated the admonition that was said at the Ten Commandments, where they were commanded from G-d regarding the essential aspect of observing Shabbat.
(and not like the command of Parshat Tisa, where the command is just stated with regard to the work of the Mishkan).
The implication of the verse:
“Moshe assembled . .Six days etc.“
And only after this,
“And Moshe spoke . . 'Take from yourselves etc.“
implies that the assembling of all the congregation of Bnei Yisroel was mainly for the admonition of Shabbat, and only afterward did he also say to them the command for the work of the Mishkan, that through this it would be,
“And I will dwell among you” – that the Shechinah would rest among them.
From this is a lesson in the manner and the great aspect of “refraining from prohibition“ (לאפרושי מאיסורא).
Even when one is occupied with the loftiest of matters. Even until the loftiest aspect of the resting of the Shechinah (which is the building of the Mishkan)
When one is occupied with this – and even before this, one must know and be careful, to the utmost extreme, from a prohibited act. This is so, even though, through this deed (absent the prohibition in it) it is possible that it may hasten the resting of the Shechinah, within him (אצלו).
M’Sichas shabbat Parshat Vayakhel 5733