Vol 37.04 - Shemini 1 Spanish French Audio Video
"The impurity decreed upon the unlearned is suspended etc. for everyone purifies themselves and ascends to Jerusalem on the festivals. etc. After the festival passes, they are considered as impure again." And whatever they touched on the festival becomes impure retroactively (ibid 10, 11).
Why does it become impure retroactively? He purified himself.
The difference between the wording of Rambam here to his wording previously (ibid 2) in the law of the trustwortiness of an unlearned person with regard to the purity of wine and oil of the libations. Dispute between the Talmud Bavli (Chagigah 26a) and the Yerushalmi (Chagigah Halacha6) in the source of the law of the purification of the unlearned on the festival.
During the pilgrimage festivals, the impurity decreed upon the unlearned is suspended and they are considered as pure. For the entire Jewish people are considered as chavairim during the pilgrimage festivals. All of their utensils, their food, and their liquids are considered as pure during the festivals, for everyone purifies themselves and ascends to Jerusalem on the festivals. Therefore their word is accepted - whether with regard to sacrificial foods or with regard to terumah - throughout the festivals. After the festival passes, they are considered as impure again.
When a person opened his barrel of wine or of oil or began selling his dough during the festival, once the festival passes, the remainder of the contents of the barrel and the remainder of the dough are assumed to be impure, for they were touched by an unlearned person. Although he touched them only during the time that he is considered as a chavair, they are only considered as pure during the days of the festival.
After the festival, on the night following the festival, the priests would immerse all the utensils that were in the Temple in a mikveh, because the unlearned people had touched them during the festival. Therefore they would tell the people: "Do not touch the Golden Table," when they would show it to the festive pilgrims so that, after the festival, it would not be considered as impure because they touched it and thus would require immersion and waiting until nightfall before it would regain purity. This is undesirable, because with regard to the showbread, Exodus 25:30 states: "It should be before Me continuously."
All of the sacred utensils require immersion and waiting until nightfall with the exception of the Golden Altar and the Copper Altar. They do not contract impurity, because their metal plating is considered as subsidiary to their inner material.
We have already explained that the word of unlearned persons is accepted with regard to the purification process of the red heifer. Because of the severity involved, the matter is never treated lightly. Similarly, their word is accepted with regard to the wine and oil intended for the accompanying offerings of a sacrifice. If they say that they are pure, they are assumed to be pure. Because this is a very severe matter, they are mindful of it.
Similarly, their word is accepted with regard to the purity of terumah during the time when winepresses and olive vats are active, for all people purify themselves and their utensils to prepare their wine in a state of purity. When the time when winepresses and olive vats are active passes, their word is no longer accepted.
When an unlearned person brings a priest a barrel of wine or oil that is terumah, he should not accept it from him, because it is assumed to be impure. If the unlearned person left it in his own possession until the next time of the winepresses and olive vats and brought it to the priest, he should accept it even though he knows it is from the previous year. For no impurity was decreed on unlearned people during the time when winepresses and olive vats are active.
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