Vol 36.13 - Beshalach 3 Spanish French Audio Video
Difference between viewpoint of Rashi and the Mechilta (16:26) in the reason the Manna did not fall on Yom Tov; Dispute in the obligation of Lechem Mishneh and explanation of Rambam on this in Hilchot Berachot (7:4) and Hilchot Shabbat (30:9); Boundaries of the obligation of Lechem Mishneh on Yom Tov (5751)
1. Rashi states on the verse:
“Six days you shall gather it, but on the seventh day which is the Shabbat on it there will be none (on that day) (Ex.16:26)”
“But on the seventh day which is the Shabbat: It is a Shabbat; on it this day there will be no manna. This verse comes only to include Yom Kippur and the Yom Tov that no manna will fall on those days as well”.
And his source is from the Midrash (homily) of R’ Elazar HaModai in the Mechilta on the passage:
“Six days you shall gather it. R’ Yehoshua says: We learn that it does not fall on Shabbat. From where do we learn that it does not fall on Yom Tov? It says: “Shabbat on it there will be none”. R’ Elazar HaModai says: We learn that it does not fall on Shabbat. From where do we learn that it does not fall on Yom Tov? It says: “there will be none”, On Yom Kippur? It says: “On Shabbat there will be none”.
However Rashi changes from the Midrash of R’ Elazar in many aspects:
1) In the Mechilta there is a specific lesson for Yom Tov and a specific lesson for Yom Kippur whereas Rashi groups them together.
2) The Mechilta prefaces Yom Tov to Yom Kippur whereas Rashi prefaces Yom Kippur to Yom Tov.
3) The Mechilta learns Yom Tov from the words: “there will be none “and Yom Kippur from “on Shabbat there will be none“. Whereas Rashi states: “This verse comes only to”. In other words, the entire verse includes to Yom Kippur and Yom Tov.
Plainly, the foundation for these differences is:
(and indeed the resting on Yom Tov and Yom Kippur are two different types of resting).
For on this he comments:
”It is Shabbat; on it this day there will be no manna” (and continues) “This verse comes only to include Yom Kippur and the Yom Tov”
(For since it already states “for today is Shabbat to the L-rd; today you will not find it in the field. Six days you shall gather it”, one must say that the verse comes only to only to include Yom Kippur and the Yom Tov).
“We therefore find that Yom Kippur and the Yom Tov are learned together from the verse: “on the seventh day which is the Shabbat etc.”.
And the reasoning is:
(And since the sanctity of Yom Kippur is different from the sanctity of Shabbat, and the sanctity of Yom Tov from that of Yom Kippur, therefore a specific lesson is needed for each one)
And this is also the reason that Rashi prefaces Yom Kippur to the Yom Tov, for it is more prevalent (פשוט יותר) that Yom Kippur is called “Shabbat”.
2. Tosafot writes in many places that there are conflicting Midrashot whether the manna fell on Yom Tov.
But Rashi, in his commentary on Torah, cites the two Derashot:
“He blessed it with manna, for on all the days of the week, it descended for them in the amount of an omer per person, whereas on the sixth day, each one received a double portion. And He hallowed it with manna, that it did not descend at all on the Shabbat.”
Therefore, according to the above it is understood:
For according to the viewpoint of Rashi, the reason the manna did not fall on Yom Kippur and Yom Tov is not because of the sanctity inherent in them, of their own accord
(for they are also separate from the preceding and later days since they are Holy days (Mikraei Kodesh),
but because of the aspect of “Shabbat” in them.
3. One could say that, according to the above, there is difference in Halacha.
In the obligation to have Lechem Mishneh (two loaves on Shabbat) the Ran writes that the obligation is the same for Yom Tov as for Shabbat:
“For R’ Abba says one is obligated to break bread (לבצוע) over two whole loaves on Shabbat, Why? Because it says, gather 'Lechem Mishneh (a double portion)'“And the Rabbis explain that also on Yomim Tovim one must break bread over two loaves just as on Shabbat. For the main obligation on Shabbat is because the Manna did not fall on Shabbat. But on Erev Shabbat double loaves fell (זוגי זוגי). And on Yomim Tovim it also did not fall, but rather on Erev Yom Tov double loaves fell, just as it fell on Erev Shabbat. Therefore one is obligated to break bread on Yom Tov over two whole loaves just as one is obligated on Shabbat” (על תרתין ריפאתא שלמאתא כדמחייבין בשבת).
Rambam cites the obligation of Lechem Mishneh on Shabbat and Yom Tov twice, in Hilchot Berachot and in Hilchot Shabbat.
And even though, it simply appears that it is the same Law (Din)
and that he summarized his words in Hilchot Shabbat, for he relied on what was written in Hilchot Berachot,
it appears that these are two (distinct) laws in the obligation of Lechem Mishneh.
For This obligation (of Lechem Mishneh) can be explained in two ways:
1. It is a law regarding the Shabbat meal (Seudah). For the definition of the Seudah is that it must be set on bread. And since the Seudah of Shabbat is an important meal, we are, therefore the obligated to break bread on two full loaves.
2. The obligation of Lechem Mishneh is a law regarding Betziat HaPat (Laws of breaking bread). For among the laws of breaking bread, one must bless and break bread from a whole loaf. But on Shabbat, there is an additional aspect in the aspect of “whole” in that since it is an important day, “whole” is defined as Lechem Mishneh, and therefore one is obligated to break bread on two full loaves.
One can say that the simple difference between these two ways is:
According to this, one could say that the reason that Rambam cites this law twice, in Hilchot Berachot and in Hilchot Shabbat, is because he holds that both reasons apply (דתרווייהו איתנהו בי׳). In other words, there are two aspects in the obligation of Lechem Mishneh, both from the law of Betziat HaPat as well as from the laws of Seudat Shabbat (and Yom Tov).
And this is the difference between the two Halachot in Rambam:
The beginning of the Halacha states:
“The most preferable way to perform the Mitzvah is to break open a whole loaf. When one possesses a whole loaf of barley bread and a broken piece (“prusa”) of wheat bread, one should put the whole loaf in (בתוך) (under - Rashi) the prusa, and break from both of them so that one breaks from the wheat and a whole loaf.”
In conjunction with this he writes:
“On Shabbat and on Yom Tov, one is obligated to break bread on two whole loaves. One should hold both in one's hands (when reciting the blessing) and break open one.”
Thus, from the perspective of Betziat HaPat one is obligated on Shabbat and Yom Tov to break from two loaves.
“A person is obligated to eat three meals on Shabbat. For all these three meals, one must set each meal (לקבוע כל סעודה משלשתן) over wine and (one must) break bread on two full loaves”
For concerning the Halachot and laws of the Three Meals of Shabbat, there is an obligation to set the meal over wine and to break bread on two loaves.
Therefore, he does not add (that which is cited in Hilchot Berachot) that “he breaks open just one of them”, for this is just from the perspective of the law of Betziat HaPat, and not that of ‘setting a meal’ (קביעות ה סעודה) (as aforementioned).
According to this we find another difference:
In the Maggid Mishneh on the laws of Shabbat (R' Vidal of Tolosa), he writes regarding the obligation of Lechem Mishneh:
“And the Gaon writes – all the time that he partakes” (כל זמן שהוא סועד).
In other words, this obligation is for each Seudah that he partakes of on Shabbat.
At first glance, this is from the perspective of the laws of Betziat HaPat in Lechem Mishneh. For then each time that he dines on Shabbat and Yom Tov, he must break bread on two loaves.
However, one could say, that the obligation of Lechem Mishneh from the perspective of the law of Seudat Shabbat, is just for the obligatory meals - the Three Meals of Shabbat (and not for each meal, which he optionally adds).
4. One must now examine in the obligation of Lechem Mishneh of Yom Tov whether these two laws also apply, or not.
The source of the law of Lechem Mishneh is in the Tractate Shabbat (117b):
“R’ Abba said: On Shabbat it is one's duty to break bread over two loaves, for it is written, “Lechem Mishneh (a double portion). R’ Ashi said: I saw that R’ Kahana held two (loaves) but broke bread over one, observing, 'they gathered' is written. R’ Zeira broke enough bread for the whole meal (בצע אכולה שירותי׳)”.
This Talmudic passage (סוגיא) is also cited in tractate Berachot (39b) after the laws of Betziat HaPat are discussed whether the law applies to broken pieces or whole loaves:
“A G-d fearing man will seek to satisfies both (both points of view). (Mar the son of Rabina) used to put the broken piece in the whole loaf and then break the bread.. R’ Puppa said: All admit that on Pesach one puts the broken piece in the whole one and breaks (them together). What is the reason? The verse states: 'Bread of affliction'”
And the Talmud continues:
R.’ Abba said etc.
(Note: R.’ Abba said: On Shabbat one should break bread from two loaves. What is the reason? Scripture speaks of 'double bread'. R’ Ashi said: I have observed R. Kahana take two and break one. R. Zera used to break off (a piece of bread) sufficient for the whole meal (on Shabbat)).
One could simply say that this is the source for the words of Rambam that there are two boundaries in the obligation of Lechem Mishneh:
And this is the difference between the two passages (סוגיות) in tractate Berachot and tractate Shabbat:
(Note: Tosafot (Pesachim 117a) discusses the three Matzos and over which ones one recites 'HaMotzi. it cites R’ Chiya bar Aba, who says that 'On Shabbat one is obligated to break over two whole loaves, as it states: 'Collect double portion of loaves". Tosafot continues:)
“And the main statement of R' Chiya bar Aba is in Perek Kol Kisvei (Shabbat 117b) is that the reason that it cites it there (in tractate Berachot), after Pesach, is to teach us that one requires there, a third Matzah (on Pesach) on account of Lechem Mishnah, and that one is obligated to break over two loaves both on Shabbat and on Yom-Tov. Otherwise, why bring there (in that tractate), the statement of R'Chiya (bar Aba). Rav Alfas too, rules that one needs to break over two loaves on Yom-Tov and the reason for this is because a double portion of Manna used to fall on Erev Yom Tov.”
Thus, we find that in the Talmudic passage of tractate Berachot, it innovates that the obligation for Lechem Mishneh is also on Yom Tov.
Accordingly, one could say that the reason the obligation of Lechem Mishneh on Yom Tov is learned specifically, from the Talmudic passage in Berachot – is because according to the viewpoint of the Talmud, the reason that there is an obligation of Lechem Mishneh on Shabbat - is because it is a only a detail of the law of Lechem Mishneh among the laws of Betziat HaPat.
(for that subject (Betziat HaPat) is discussed in tractate Berachot there)
But not because it is a detail of Seudat Yom Tov
(for this is discussed in tractate Shabbat there, in the laws regarding Seudat Shabbat).
The explanation is:
including those relating to work surrounding food etc. (מלאכת אובל נפש),
and one must extensively prepare on Erev Shabbat for the Seudah (on Shabbat), we therefore find that that the Seudah of Shabbat has more significance and setting (יותר חשיבות וקביעות) than that of the Seudah of Yom Tov, where one can prepare it during the day itself. Therefore there is room to say that the Seudah of Yom Tov does not require that it be set over two loaves.
According to all this, one could say that this is dependent on the difference between the Mechilta and Rashi’s commentary on Torah (as aforementioned):
For the nature of the obligation of Lechem Mishneh on Yom Tov is exactly the same as that of Shabbat, namely – that there are two restrictions (גדרים):
MSichas Shabbat Parshat Beshalach 5728
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