Vol 35.32 - Vayigash 3 Spanish French Audio Video
|Hebrew Text: haftorah-Vayigash Talmud-Sanhedrin|
(5751) Haftorah of our parsha (Ezekiel 37:24,25): "And My servant David shall be king over them . . . and My servant
David shall be their prince forever".
The difference between the two aspects: "king over them" and "their prince".
Explanation of the words of Talmud (Sanhedrin 98b): "The Holy One, blessed be He, will raise up another David for us . . . e.g., an emperor and a viceroy"
1. In the Haftarah of our Parsha it states:
“And My servant David shall be king (Melech/מֶ֣לֶךְ) over them, and one shepherd shall be for them all, and they shall walk in My ordinances and observe My statutes and perform them. And they shall dwell on the land that I have given to My servant, to Jacob, wherein your forefathers lived; and they shall dwell upon it, they and their children and their children's children, forever; and David, My servant, shall be prince (Nasi/נָשִׂ֥יא) to them forever.”
וְעַבְדִּ֚י דָוִד֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ עֲלֵיהֶ֔ם וְרוֹעֶ֥ה אֶחָ֖ד יִהְיֶ֣ה לְכֻלָּ֑ם וּבְמִשְׁפָּטַ֣י יֵלֵ֔כוּ וְחֻקֹּתַ֥י יִשְׁמְר֖וּ וְעָשׂ֥וּ אוֹתָֽם
וְיָֽשְׁב֣וּ עַל־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֚ר נָתַ֙תִּי֙ לְעַבְדִּ֣י לְיַֽעֲקֹ֔ב אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָֽשְׁבוּ־בָ֖הּ אֲבֽוֹתֵיכֶ֑ם וְיָֽשְׁב֣וּ עָלֶ֡יהָ הֵ֠מָּה וּבְנֵיהֶ֞ם וּבְנֵ֚י בְנֵיהֶם֙ עַד־עוֹלָ֔ם וְדָוִ֣ד עַבְדִּ֔י נָשִׂ֥יא לָהֶ֖ם לְעוֹלָֽם
One must examine the reason for the differences between the two verses:
[And even though, the simple reason is that it comes in continuation to the beginning of the verse: “evertheless it is understood that, this innovation (that he will be the Nasi forever) is specifically related to the term “Nasi”. For that is why it does not specify the description “Melech” here (as it written in the previous verse) but rather the word “Nasi”].
2. This can be understood by prefacing an explanation in the words of the Talmud:
“R’ Yehuda said in Rav’s name: The Holy One, blessed be He, will raise up another David for us
[Who will rule over us in the future – Rashi]
as it is written, ‘But they shall serve the L-rd their G-d, and David their king, whom I will raise up unto them’. It does not state: 'I raised up', but rather: 'I will raise up' is said.
R’ Papa said to Abaye: But it is written, ‘And my servant David shall be their prince [Nasi] forever’? - (he replied) – for example Caesar and Palgi Caesar (a king and a viceroy. Literally a half-Caesar)”
Rashi explains the words “Caesar and Palgi Caesar: A king and his viceroy. So too the new David will be the king as it states ‘and David their king, whom I will raise up unto them’ and King David will be second to him as it states that he “shall be prince to them’ and it does not state ‘Melech’“.
One must examine this:
[Indeed, at first glance, we do not find in Halacha (at all) the concept of a “second to the king”. However, to note - there is indeed a Vice Kohen Gadol (Segan Koen Gadol/ ) for the Kohen Gadol. However we do not find such a thing with a king. It is understandable, that a king may appoint a “viceroy”, however we do not find, according to Halacha, that he would have a special power, as being “second to the king”, over that of the other ministers of the king]
One must also examine the precise words of the Talmud: “for example Caesar and Palgi Caesar “. Why does the Talmud use the word “Caesar” which is a title of Roman kings – and not say (in the holy tongue- Hebrew – like the words of the verse) “Melech” and “Mishneh l’Melech”?
3. One could perhaps say that the intent of the Sages is not to explain the matter literally, namely that at that time there will be two separate men, that will lead Yisroel. For even according to the words of the Talmud, when it says “and David, My servant, shall be prince to them“– it refers to Melech Moshiach (and not to King David). For even Moshiach is called by the name “David” (as aforementioned).
But rather they mean to say that Melech Moshiach himself will possess two properties (שני גדרים): “Caesar and Palgi Caesar “, as will be explained at length, further on).
And the explanation of the Talmud: “The Holy One, blessed be He, will raise up another David for us etc. . . But it is written, ‘And my servant David shall be Nasi to them” is that:
Concerning Melech Moshiach there will be a primary innovation (חידוש עיקרי) over that of the Davidic kings (and even over that of King David himself). Therefore he is called “another David “. For in this aspect he is not similar to the first David.
And on this the Talmud asks: “And my servant David shall be Nasi to them “. That even in the Future, Melech Moshiach will resemble the first David (and therefore he is accordingly called King David)?
And on this the Talmud answers: “for example Caesar and Palgi Caesar“. For Melech Moshiach will possess the two qualities of “Caesar and Palgi Caesar “:
And one could say that this is the difference between the two verses “And My servant David shall be Melech over them (and) “David, My servant, shall be Nasi to them“, for the two titles “Melech” and “Nasi” are the two aspects “Caesar and Palgi Caesar” that Melech Moshiach possesses.
And this is why it states “And David, My servant, shall be Nasi to them “. For even though the virtue of a Melech is greater than the virtue of a Nasi (like the difference between Caesar and Palgi Caesar) nevertheless, the leadership (Nesiut) is not nullified to the virtue of the kingship (Malchut). And on the contrary, it specifically states regarding a “Nasi” that: “David, My servant, shall be Nasi to them forever“ (as will be explained in Paragraph 5).
And with this one can explain the difference between the two verses “And My servant David“ or “and David, My servant“:
The first verse, speaks of the virtue of Melech Moshiach as a “Caesar” (Melech). For with this, there is no relation to the first David,
[And it is just that he is called by his name “David”, “another David”].
On this the verse states “And My servant David”. For with this expression, the emphasis is that he is “My servant”.
(But it is just that the “servant” is called with the name “David”).
In other words this virtue comes to him (not because he is “David”, but rather) since he is “My servant”.
Whereas the virtue of Melech Moshiach as a “Nasi”, has a relation to King David. And therefore he is called “David, My servant shall be Nasi to them”.
According to this one can resolve that which Rashi states that:
“And King David will be second to him as it states that he “shall be Nasi to them’ and it does not state ‘Melech’“,
even though it clearly states “And My servant David shall be Melech over them“. For the two aspects of “Caesar and Palgi Caesar” (Melech and Nasi) will be in that person – Melech Moshiach.
The explanation of this is:
In the scope of the duties and effect of Melech Moshiach, Rambam explains:
[And also after “his kingdom has been established and all of Yisroel has gathered around him, all of them will conform to his words and the prophetic spirit which will rest upon him”.]
And this is the aspect of a Jewish king, in general.
As Rambam states, every king’s “purpose and intent shall be to elevate the true faith and fill the world with justice, breaking the arm of the wicked and waging the wars of G-d. For the entire purpose of appointing a king is to execute justice and wage wars“.
From these words it is understood that Rambam’s words that:
“In that era . . The occupation of the entire world will be solely to know G-d. Therefore, the Jews will be great Sages and know the hidden matters, grasping the knowledge of their Creator according to the full extent of human potential, as it states: 'The world will be filled with the knowledge of G-d as the waters cover the ocean bed’" -
that all this will be through Melech Moshiach, for “he will teach the entire nation and instruct them in the path of G-d “.
And according to this one could say that on this aspect, Moshiach will be called be called “Nasi”, similar to what we find in the wording of the Sages, that the head of the Sanhedrin “is the one “who is called by the Sages: Nasi in every place and he is the one who stands under Moshe Rabbeinu”. And similarly one could say that the reason that Moshiach is called Nasi is because he “will teach the entire nation and instruct them in the path of G-d“.
According to this one could explain the difference between the words of the verse “Melech over them" and ”Nasi to them”.
[and therefore, the virtue of the Nasi is called (in the Talmud) “Palgi Caesar”, since the influence of the Nasi is not in a manner of superiority/רוממות like a Melech (Caesar).
5. And this is the main difference between the two aforementioned aspects:
The effect of Melech Moshiach in the first aspect, namely his conducting of the kingdom, is in a manner of innovation (חידוש), which is not according to nature. For through him there will be a major innovation in the entire world, as is explained in Rambam, at length there, that he will “rectify the entire world to serve G-d together”. For “They will all return to the true faith and no longer steal or destroy”. So much so that “In that era, there will be neither famine or war, envy or competition etc. The occupation of the entire world will be solely to know G-d”.
In other words, even though Rambam rules that no “facet of the world's nature will change” and that there will be no “innovations in the work of creation. Rather, the world will continue according to its pattern“. Nevertheless this (just) means that the dictates of the nature of Creation will not be nullified. Yet it is understood that, since the whole world will serve G-d, together, and that there will not be any wars etc., and that all of their occupation will be solely to know G-d - that this an innovation (חידוש) in the conduct of the world, which has never been found.
However, regarding his influence in the role of Nasi, namely, that Moshiach will “teach the entire nation and instruct them in the path of G-d” - even though this includes even “the hidden matters etc.“ (as aforementioned), nevertheless this is not a true innovation, since in the Torah, it is impossible to have a (true) innovation, as Rambam rules that this Torah has no “change, diminishment or addition“ (שתורה הזאת ״אין לה לא שינוי ולא גרעון ולא תוספת״).
And one could say that this thing is alluded to in the words of the Talmud: “Caesar and Palgi Caesar”:
It is explained in Tosafot, regarding the root of the word “Caesar”, that it refers to the name of one Roman king whose:
“Mother died when she gave birth to him, and her stomach was split open and they found the baby alive . . he was called “Caesar” in the Roman language which comes from the word ‘cut’ (כרות) in Hebrew. [In other words a birth in a manner of a “going out of the wall (of the womb/ יוצא דופן) i.e. a “caesarian birth”]. All Roman kings thereafter were called “Caesar” based on his name.”
And this is the hint why Moshiach is called Caesar – a king who was born in a manner of “outside of the norm (יוצא דופן). In other words not according to the dictates that G-d implanted in the order of birth (through the womb) – to show that the kingdom of Melech Moshiach (his effect in the world) will be in a manner of innovation, not according to the dictates of the nature of the world. And it is “outside of the norm (יוצא דופן), in a positive connotation (למעליותא).
(However this, that Moshiach is a Nasi, does not possess (so much of) an innovation. And because of this it is just in the scope of “Palgi Caesar”).
However, even though the main innovation of Melech Moshiach, is in the manner of kingship (מלכות), nevertheless there is an advantage in the aspect of leadership (הנשיאות) over that of kingship.
In plain terms:
The need for the aspect of kingship is (as aforementioned in the words of Rambam) in order to “elevate the true faith and fill the world with justice, breaking the arm of the wicked and waging the wars of G-d.”
From this it is understood, that after Moshiach will “rectify the entire world to serve G-d together and that “The occupation of the entire world will be solely to know G-d”, then (at that time) there is not a need (so much) for the deeds of Moshiach in the role of a Melech. The main duties of Melech Moshiach will be to teach the people and to instruct them in the path of G-d.
And this is also the reason that specifically regarding the aspect of Nasi, it states “David, My servant, shall be Nasi to them forever”. For the main aspect of the eternality of the kingship of Moshiach is not in the effects of the conduct of his kingdom, but rather in his influence in the role of a Nasi, to “teach all the people and to instruct them in the path of G-d“.
m’Sichas Acharon Shel Pesach 5748
Maamer s.v. “And My servant David” (2) 5742
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