In the Siyum of Tractate Chullin(142a) the Talmud states:
MISHNAH. A MAN MAY NOT TAKE THE DAM WITH THE YOUNG EVEN FOR THE
SAKE OF CLEANSING THE LEPER. IF IN RESPECT OF SO LIGHT A PRECEPT, WHICH
DEALS WITH THAT WHICH IS BUT WORTH AN ISSAR, THE TORAH SAID, THAT IT
MAY BE WELL WITH THEE, AND THAT THOU MAYEST PROLONG THY DAYS, HOW
MUCH MORE [MUST BE THE REWARD] FOR THE OBSERVANCE OF THE MORE
DIFFICULT PRECEPTS OF THE TORAH!
GEMARA. It was taught: R. Jacob says, There is no precept in the Torah, where reward is stated by its side, from which you cannot infer the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead. Thus, in connection with honouring parents it is written: That thy days may be prolonged, and that it may go well with thee. Again in connection with the law of letting [the dam] go from the nest it is written: ‘That it may be well with thee, and that thou mayest prolong thy days’. Now, in the case where a man's father said to him, ‘Go up to the top of the building and bring me down some young birds’,and he went up to the top of the building, let the dam go and took the young ones, and on his return he fell and was killed-where is this man's length of days, and where is this man's happiness? But ‘that thy days may be prolonged’ refers to the world that is wholly long, and ‘that it may go well with thee’ refers to the world that is wholly good. But perhaps such a thing could not happen? —
R. Jacob actually saw this occurrence. Then perhaps that person had conceived in his mind a sinful thought? — The Holy One, blessed be He, does not reckon the sinful thought for the deed. Perhaps then he had conceived in his mind idolatry, and it is written: That I may take the house of Israel in their own heart, which, according to R. Aha b. Jacob, refers to thoughts of idolatry? — This was what he [R. Jacob] meant to convey: if there is a reward for precepts in this world, then surely that [reward] should have stood him in good stead and guarded him from such thoughts that he come not to any hurt; we must therefore say that there is no reward for precepts in this world.