Vol 15.31 - Vayetze 1 Spanish French Audio Video
|Hebrew Text: Talmud English-Shabbat|
R’ Yochanan said in R’ Jose's name: He who delights in the Sabbath is given an unbounded heritage, for it is written, Then shalt thou delight thyself in the L-rd, and I will make thee to ride upon the high places of the earth; and I will feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy father, etc.
Rab Judah said in Rab's name: He who delights in the Sabbath is granted his heart's desires, for it is said, Delight thyself also in the L-rd; And he shall give thee the desires of thine heart. Now, I do not know what this 'delight' refers to; but when it is said, and thou shalt call the Sabbath a delight, you must say that it refers to the delight of the Sabbath. Wherewith does one show his delight therein? — Rab Judah son of R’ Samuel b. Shilath said in Rab's name: With a dish of beets, large fish, and heads of garlic. R’ Hiyya b. Ashi said in Rab's name: Even a trifle, if it is prepared in honor of the Sabbath, is delight. What is it the trifle? — Said R’ Papa: A pie of fish-hash.
1. In conjunction with G-d‘s blessing to Jacob that “and thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south” the Sages state:
“He who delights in the Sabbath is given an unbounded heritage, for it is written, Then shalt thou delight thyself in the L-rd etc. and I will feed thee with the heritage of Jacob etc. Not like Abraham etc. nor like Yitzchak etc. but like Jacob, of whom it is written, and thou shalt spread forth to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south”
It is known that the reward for a Mitzvah is measure for measure.
One must understand:
How is the Mitzvah of (Delighting/Oneg) Shabbat a level of “unbounded/Bli Meitzarim” which therefore correlates to the reward of “an unbounded heritage”?
2. This very aspect - that the reward for keeping Shabbat is the blessing “You shall spread abroad (“an unbounded heritage”) - is found regarding Jacob himself.
The Sages state (in the Midrash):
“Avraham, of whom the keeping of Shabbat is not mentioned, inherited the world in a measured manner (Midah) as it states: “Rise and walk through the land, its length and breadth etc.". But Jacob, of whom it is written: “and encamped before the city (meaning that) he arrived before sunset and set the boundaries/ (Techumin) while still day, inherited the world unbounded as it states: “And your seed will be as the dust of the earth etc.”
The commentators explain that the explanation of the words: “Avraham, of whom the keeping of Shabbat is not mentioned”
(does not mean that it is never mentioned in Torah that Avraham kept the Mitzvah of Shabbat – for it states: “and kept My charge” of which the Sages say: “Avraham knew even the laws of Eruvei Chatzeirot (a ritual enclosure that permits residents to carry objects outside their own homes on Sabbath etc.), but rather
means that Shabbat was not said “explicitly” or “in a specific manner” to him, but just in a general manner, incorporated within all the Mitzvot of the Torah . However it does state “in a specific manner” that Jacob kept the Mitzvah of Shabbat.
And since the Mitzvah of Shabbat is underscored by Jacob, (and not by Avraham) – it is itself a lesson that, for Jacob, the Mitzvah of keeping of Shabbat was distinguished from the other Mitzvot, and that because of this distinction in his keeping the Mitzvah of Shabbat, he merited the blessing of “spread forth”.
One must also say, that since, of all the Mitzvot of Shabbat that Jacob kept, it mentions that he “set enclosures/techumin” – it is understood that even though the blessing of “spread forth” has a relation to keeping Shabbat, in general,
like the statement on the Sages: “But Jacob, of whom it is written that he kept Shabbat”,
nevertheless he has a special connection to the aspect of setting enclosures/techumin.
In other words:
This special quality in keeping Shabbat, with which Jacob distinguished himself, was especially noted in the keeping of the aspect of enclosure.
One must understand:
3. One can understand this by prefacing an explanation of the Mittler Rebbe – whose redemption is celebrated on Yud Kislev, in his Maamer “Atah Echad/You are One” , concerning the difference between the Mitzvah of Shabbat versus other Mitzvot:
For other Mitzvot, since their manner of observance is through an “Avodah” and “deed”, there are differences in the manner of observance between great Tzaddikim versus the observance of simple folk.
For example in the Mitzvah of donning Tefillin:
Great Tzaddikim, in their donning Tefillin opposite the heart and on the head, have loftier hearts (and intellectual) minds - than that of simple people. And the same applies to other Mitzvot.
However, the Mitzvah of keeping Shabbat entails respite/menucha and refrainng/shivisa from aspects of work (asiya). Therefore in the “not”, i.e. in the refraining (of work), there is no difference between one Jew and another. For even though the refraining of simple people is from general work i.e. refraining from work that was done in the Tabernacle/Mishkan – there is also the refraining from the Avodah of refining (Avodat Habirurim) that is done on the weekdays – and there it is only a difference in the aspects that one is resting from. But in the essential aspect of resting: “they are really equal”.
And through completely keeping the resting and refraining since it is “in his eyes as if all his work has been complete” and “because of the Oneg of Shabbat”, he does not “think at all about his affairs” – and “there is no Oneg/pleasure greater than this”.
4. The reason that all are equal in the Mitzvah of Shabbat, as the Mittler Rebbe explains, is because the main Mitzvah of Shabbat is
“Essential calm /”Menuchat HaNefesh b’Atzmuta” in the level of Yechida which is above the revealed level of the mind and heart”.
This means that the Mitzvah of Shabbat is connected to the essence of the soul, the level of Yechida of the soul/nefesh. Therefore there is no difference between one Jew and another. Because in the level of Yechida, all Jews are similar – from the greatest of the great to the simplest of the simple.
Accordingly, The Mittler Rebbe explains that, that is why we recite in the Shabbat Mincha prayer:
“For their rest is from You, and upon their rest they sanctify Your name" ("ki me'itcha hee m'nuchatam,v'al menuchatam yakdishu et shmecha.)
The rest of Shabbat is “from You, really/mamosh”, from the “Essence and Being/atmzus u'mehus of G-d “.
Therefore the menucha of Yidden is connected with the essence of the soul mamosh – the level of Yechida. And “and upon their rest they sanctify Your name”, the aspect of self-sacrifice for the sanctification of G-d‘s name, is found in his entirety, in all Yidden equally. Because the power of self-sacrifice for the sanctification of G-d‘s name stems from the Yechida of the soul. Therefore it is “and upon their rest they sanctify etc." because the rest of Shabbat and for the sanctification of G-d‘s name both stem from Yechida of the soul.
5, That which Yechida of the soul is complete by each Yid, notwithstanding the status of his abilities (kochot) – is because Yechida is completely removed (upgetrogen) from the powers of the person, which is higher than “revealed”.
This means that Yechida Sheb’Nefesh is even higher than the transcendental (makifim) levels of the soul (neshama). For they also have a comparable manifestation on the person – as it is explained in Chassidut on the saying of the Sages: “Even though they did not see, their Mazal saw”. From the level of Mazal of the Neshama, which is the transcendental (makif) level of the Neshama, thoughts of Teshuva fall to a person without preparation etc.”
However Yechida Sheb’Nefesh is higher than having a revealed manifestation in a person. So much so that it appears to have no connection to him.
Therefore the level of Yechida Sheb’Nefesh cannot have a dwelling in the receptacles of the body. Moreover, (it can ) not even (dwell) in the transcendental (levels – makifim) of the person such as clothing and a house in which the transcendental levels of the soul can dwell – because, at least, they (clothing, home) have a certain relativity (ongemostenkeit) to the person,
(Not just “Clothing/levushim” the Makif HaKarov (closer transcendental level) which encircle the person in a manner that is fitting according to the measure of the person wearing the clothing. But also “house” which is a Makif HaRachok (further transcendental level), which is far from the person – this also has a connection and relation/Erech to the person.)
whereas, Yechida cannot have a dwelling there, since it is completely separate from the person.
However, the dwelling of Yechida is (as is explained there in the Maamer) in the Four Cubits/Dalet Amot of the person which “are so far from the person that there is no greater distance than it” – there the Yechida of the Nefesh can reside.
And this is also the reason that there is a law of Dalet Amot on the Shabbat (day) which the Sages learn from the verse: “Every man must remain in his place. No man may go out of his place” – For the revelation of the level of Yechida is on Shabbat , which resides in the Dalet Amot of the person.
6. According to all of the above, the connection of the blessing of “Spread forth” with the Mitzvah of Shabbat is understood:
“Spread forth” is “a heritage without bounds”, which in its true form - is the spreading of G-d‘s Essence and Being which has no bounds. And this is accomplished by keeping Shabbat, which is: “their rest is from You, really/mamosh”,
And this is also the quality of Jacob‘s keeping Shabbat over that of Avraham:
Which is why it states:
(as a preface to the blessing of “Spread forth”)
“And your seed will be as the dust/afar of the earth etc.”, For dust depicts the epitome of Bitul –
the level of Yechida, was illuminated. And this is expressed openly in (the Mitzvah of ) keeping Shabbat, as discussed above, at length.
7. According to this, one can also understand why, out of the entire category of keeping Shabbat, the aspect of enclosure is distinguished:
The enclosure/”Techum” of a person is similar to his “Dalet Amot”, for the Techum is the “place/makom” of a person,
(Which is why it is learned from the verse: “No man may go out of his place/mekomo”,)
thus it is understood that , the revelation of the level of Yechida has a relation to the enclosure /Techum of a person.
In other words, just as there is a dwelling of the level of Yechida in the Dalet Amot of a person, so too, one could possibly say, that there is a glimmer of this, in its dwelling in the “general” “place” of the person – in his Techum.
And therefore, even though the aspect of Yechida expresses itself in the general realm of keeping the Mitzvah of Shabbat, it, nevertheless, has a special connection to the aspect of enclosure/techumin – for the dwelling of the level of Yechida is there.
m’Maamer s.v. “V’Haya Zaracha”
Shabbat Parshat Vayetze, Yud Kislev 5722
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