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(5736) "The Mishkan was erected" - "busy yourself with your hand! . . It appeared as if he (Moshe) had erected it but it had stood upright of its own."(Tanchuma 11, Rashi Ex. 39:33).
The difference (according to Pshat and Chassidus) between the opinion of Rashi and Ramban (40:20) in the difference of the erecting of the Mishkan on the seven days of inauguration to the erecting of the Mishkan on the eigth day of inauguration for
They were unable to erect it. Because Moshe did no work whatsoever in the Mishkon G-d left it for him to erect, for no man was able to erect it because of the weight of the planks for no man had the strength to stand them up, but Moshe stood them up. Actually, Moshe himself could also not do it but . . . Moshe said to G-d: How is it possible for man to erect it? Whereupon He answered him: "You busy yourself with your hand!" It appeared as if he (Moshe) had erected it but it had stood upright of its own. This is what is meant by what is said: "The Mishkan was erected"---it was erected of its own. From the Midrash of Rabbi Tanchuma.
1. On the verse (ex. 40:17):
“It came to pass in the first month, in the second year, on the first day of the month, that the Mishkan was set up.”
The Midrash (and it is cited by Rashi) states that the reason that it states, “the Mishkan was set up”, which implies that the Mishkan was set up by itself, is because all Yisroel were unable to erect it (due to the heaviness of the Kerashim/Planks). Even Moshe was unable to erect it. The Holy One, blessed is He, said to him, “You work with your hand and appear to be erecting it, and it will arise by itself. For I have written concerning you that you will raise it, as is states: ‘And it came to pass in the first month in the second year on the first day of the month, that the Tabernacle was reared up’ (ibid., v. 17). Who set it up? Moshe, as it is states: ‘And Moshe erected up the Tabernacle’.”
One must understand:
Further on in the Midrash it states (and it is also cited in Rashi) that,
“All seven days of the Installation (which began on the 23rd of Adar) Moshe set up the Tabernacle and took it down. And no person was able to erect it (due to the weight of the Kerashim). Therefore, how was Moshe able to erect it and dismantle it each day?
2. The reason that Moshe erected the Mishkan on the Seven Days of Inauguration, even though G-d commanded him
"On the day of the first month, on the first of the month, you shall set up the Mishkan of the Tent of Meeting.”
is explained in another place (Likkutei Sichos Vol 12 Shemini 1), at length, regarding the view of Rashi and Ramban:
The Ramban writes that,
“For He (G-d) said to him, at the beginning (before the Seven Days of Inauguration, ‘You shall erect the Mishkan according to its rules. As shown to you on the mountain’. Since He explained to him, here, ‘on the first of the month, you shall set up the Mishkan’, in other words that, on the first day it should be set up in a permanent manner, he (Moshe) understood that during (each) of the days of Installation, it would be necessary for him to put it up and dismantle it etc.”
However, since Rashi, in his commentary on Torah, does not explain that the intent of “set it up permanently” does not take the verse out of its literal meaning (Peshuto) – it appears that he maintains that the explanation of
“on the first of the month, you shall set up the Mishkan”
(not that on this day “it should be set up in a permanent manner”, but rather)
like its simple meaning that the erecting, in general, should be on this day.
According to this, the command,
“On the day of the first month . . you shall set up the Mishkan etc.”
is not an additional command
(to the command “you shall set up the Mishkan etc.”, like the explanation of the Ramban)
but rather, it is just a revelation of the matter (גילוי מילתא) and explanation of the command, “you shall set up” – that the fulfillment of this command should be,
“On the day of the first month, on the first of the month”.
Although Moshe erected the Mishkan before Rosh Chodesh Nisan, he was not commanded explicitly to do so, but rather he derived this from that which he was commanded to instruct Aharon and his sons in their service. Moreover, the instruction in the service must be in the very place that that the service will be permanently done. (Primarily) he derived this from the explicit command, that all the Seven Days of Inauguration should be “at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting etc.”. From this he knew that he must erect the Mishkan.
According to this, it is well according to the view of Ramban,
that regarding the erecting of the Mishkan, during the Seven Days of Inauguration, there was a special command,
one could possibly say (albeit with difficulty) that even on this there was an empowerment (נתינת כה) from G-d. And even this is included in that which, “the Mishkan was set up”.
However, according to Rashi’s view,
that regarding the erecting on the Seven Days of Inauguration, there was no command –
where did he (Moshe) get the strength (due to the heaviness of the Kerashim) to erect it - all the Seven Days of Inauguration?
3. The explanation of this is:
The quality of Rosh Chodesh Nisan, the eighth day of the Inauguration, is that it was,
“and the glory of the L-rd filled the Mishkan”,
the resting of the Shechinah in it. Whereas, during the Seven Days of Inauguration, the Shechinah did not rest there.
According to Rashi’s view, it is understood plainly why the Shechinah did not rest there during the Seven Days of Inauguration, even though it states,
“Make a Sanctuary for Me, and I will dwell in their midst”
(that the resting of the Shechinah – “I will dwell in their midst” - is solely (אך ורק) dependent upon the making and the erecting of the Mishkan - in “Make a Sanctuary for Me”).
For the Mishkan that was erected during the Seven Days of Inauguration was a part of the instruction of Aharon and his sons, and not an aspect of the erecting of the Mishkan.
Even according to Ramban‘s view, that even the erecting during the Seven Days of Inauguration was because
“He (G-d) said to him, at the beginning (before the Seven Days of Inauguration, ‘You shall erect the Mishkan according to its rules. As shown to you on the mountain’” –
he explains that,
“Perhaps this was done in order to train the Levites how to do so.
(In other words, that this was a part of training (instructing) the Levites).
Or, it may be that this was done to crown the day (of Rosh Chodesh Nisan) with this crown (of erecting it for permanence – establishing it)”.
In other words, the difference between the Mishkan during the Seven Days of Inauguration, versus the Mishkan that was erected on the eighth day, is similar to the difference between the Mishkan – which was a temporary dwelling, versus the Beit HaMikdash – which was G-d‘s permanent dwelling. Therefore, the Shechinah did not rest there until the Eighth day.
4. The uniqueness of the Eighth day, its advantage versus the Seven Days of Inauguration – is emphasized in many aspects of this day. As the Sages state, and in Rashi’s words, that:
“that very day on which the Tabernacle was set up, it took ten crowns”
(Note: That day took ten crowns: It was the first day of creation (i.e., a Sunday), the first for the offerings of the nesi’im (tribal heads), the first for the priesthood, the first for (public) sacrifice, the first for the fall of fire from heaven, the first for the eating of sacred food, the first for the dwelling of the Divine Presence in Israel, the first for the priestly blessing of Israel, the first day on which it was forbidden to sacrifice to G‑d anywhere but in the Sanctuary, and the first of months.)
It is therefore simple that there must be a difference in the manner of the erecting of the Mishkan:
“let us build ourselves a city, and a tower whose top will reach the heavens”,
that it is no wonder, at all, that they are constructed through the effort of many people together.
Yet in our case, it states,
“No person was able to erect it due to the heaviness of the Kerashim/Planks. For no person could stand them up. (Only) Moshe was able to erect it . . (and even in this – it just) “appeared as if he erected it”
The precise words, “no person”- (in the singular, indicates an) individual. This needed to be on the Eighth day.
(which was not so during the Seven Days of Inauguration – where many people, together, erected it).
In these Parshiot, themselves – there are many details in the making of the Mishkan that we do not find, regarding them, a command. Moreover, even their details, seemingly, contradict the command over them. As Rashi states,
“I found a problem in this (matter, namely that) here the text states. . yet in the section dealing with the command it states etc.”
Moreover, one could say that this is the explanation of the command:
“You (in the singular) shall erect the Mishkan according to its rules. As shown to you (just to Moshe) on the mountain”.
According to Rashi (as aforementioned) that it is speaking of its erecting on Rosh Chodesh Nisan, one could say that this is also the precise wording of Rashi in his explanation on the verse:
“For I (in the singular) am destined to teach you and show you (for plainly, he explains - that G-d, as it were, Himself erected and with) the order (סדר) of its setting up”.
For “order” means not just the (before and after of) in time, but (also) the details of the aspect, in general. This is like the term “Seder Haggadah” and so forth, and this is simple.
5. From the homiletic style of Torah in Rashi's commentary (Yayina shel Torah):
It is known regarding the aspect of Itaruta Diletata (arousal from below) and Itaruta Dile’eyla (arousal from Above),
(and in Itaruta Dile’eyla – there are two levels: that which comes through Itaruta Diletata, and which is above Itaruta Diletata - for although they are incomparable, there is a common side between them (צד השווה ביניהן). However, this is not the place to discuss it).
that there is an advantage to each one of them:
(so much so, that it is like the statement, “A person prefers a Kav (portion) of his own produce to nine Kav of another’s produce.”)
This is the difference between the erecting of the Mishkan during the Seven Days of Inauguration, to its erecting on Rosh Chodesh Nisan (the Eighth day of the Inauguration):
However, through this, it was not made a “Mishkan”( משכן) (which is termed after, “I will dwell”( ושכנתי)) - and the Shechinah did not yet rest there.
Even according to Ramban‘s view - during the seven days, there was the aspect of training the Levites (the “below”) or at least in permanence (קביעות), “the Above – to below”
6. According to this, it is understood why, on Rosh Chodesh Nisan, the Mishkan was erected, on its own, and no person was able to erect it.
Whereas, during the Seven Days of Inauguration, Moshe erected the Mishkan (with the participation of others of Bnei Yisroel?) each day.
For during each of the seven days, the erecting of the Mishkan was just as a preparation – the Avodah of below (in order that there would afterward be the “I will dwell in their midst”).
This preparation is possible and must be with the power of “below”. However, on Rosh Chodesh Nisan, where it must be “make a Sanctuary for Me, and I will dwell in their midst” – the making of the Mishkan – the actual resting of the Shechinah – is impossible to be made solely through, and with the power of, below. Rather, it comes and is drawn down from Above - with Itaruta Dile’eyla.
(In order that on the day of Rosh Chodesh Nisan, the Mishkan be erected, and the Shechinah rest in it, in an inner manner (באופן פנימי)
(since, for this, there must be the refining of the one who receives (המקבל))
within each one of Yisroel (like the statement of the Sages), there had to be the heartfelt donations of each of Yisroel to the Mishkan. And afterward, the work of the wise-hearted persons in the making of the Mishkan.
Moreover, after the completion of the making of the Mishkan – “bringing the Mishkan to Moshe”. For Moshe, being the intermediary, and an intermediary that joins G-d to Yisroel, as it states,
“I was standing between the L-rd and you etc.”
was possible to physically engage (לעסוק) and erect it - and through this, their donations etc. became - a Mishkan - “I will dwell in their midst”).
However, the actual erecting that brought the visible, “I will dwell in their midst” was “by itself” (מאליו), Itaruta Dile’eyla, which is above Itaruta Diletata.
7. According to the aforementioned, in the view of the Midrash and the view of Rashi, one could say that they follow those opinions who maintain that:
"The Future Temple that we hope for is ‘built and elaborate’ (בנוי ומשוכלל) and will be revealed and come from Heaven as it states: ‘The sanctuary, O L-rd, which Your hands founded’”.
According to this opinion, notwithstanding the quality and innovation of the Avodah of below, nevertheless it is impossible that the making of the Mishkan and the resting of the Shechinah be accomplished through the below. Rather, specifically through Itaruta Dile’eyla, which is incomparably higher than what can be drawn down through the Avodah of below.
(Therefore, after all the advantage of the Avodah of below, during the Seven Days of Inauguration, where the Mishkan was erected many times etc., indeed, “its erecting“ in a manner that the Shechinah should rest in it, was specifically through its being set up - “the Mishkan was set up”- from Above.)
Therefore, they maintain that even the future Mikdash will not be built through the hands of man, but rather will be revealed and come from Heaven.
According to this, one could say that Rambam maintains that Moshiach will build the Beit HaMikdash. For even he follows the opinion in the advantage of the Avodah of below over the revelation of the Above – with regard to the Mishkan and the Mikdash.
This is according to what it has been explained, that although the Mishkan and the Mikdash contained two general things:
The reason (according to Rambam‘s view) is:
Although the advantage of the resting of the Shechinah that comes from Above, is not comparable to the Avodah that is done through created beings. Nevertheless, there is, in this (the Avodah that is done through created beings), a quality, that even though this is just a “Kav”/portion, nevertheless it is “his Kav” – the Avodah of created beings. When G-d commanded Yisroel to make a Mishkan and Mikdash, the intent was for the Avodat HaAdam that is done with it.
(Which is not so regarding the resting of the Shechinah, which is an aspect that comes from Above). Therefore, even in the future, Moshiach will build the Mikdash.
8. However, it is understood that even according to the view of the Midrash and Rashi, there is an advantage and quality to the Avodah and refining of the below. Because of this, there had to be, as aforementioned, the Avodah of each of Yisroel, in the donation for the Mishkan, and the Avodah of all the wise-hearted people in the work of the Mishkan. However, all this was in the preparation. However, the actual erecting and making of the Mishkan was not possible through the Avodah of Yisroel. Therefore, they brought “the Mishkan to Moshe“. Similarly, this was the aspect of its erecting during the Seven Days of Inauguration, which was a preparation from below, in order for there to be the resting of the Shechinah on Rosh Chodesh Nisan with Itaruta Dile’eyla, as aforementioned.
The lesson of all this is:
(which resides within each person, and through this – to the manifestation of Moshe, who is in his generation) –
namely, the Sages of the generation who are the eyes of the community. For the “Moshe” of the generation has the power to erect the Mishkan within the soul of each person, in a manner of drawing down from Above.
When one is offered to do “Shlichut”/outreach - to travel and engage in the spreading of Judaism and the wellsprings (of Chassidut), particularly outward,
(which through this, one also erects the Mishkan, within each one of those that he influences),
it is possible that one could think, that according to his present standing, this directive is not related to him.
For he claims: This just pertains to “wise and understanding people”. Consequently, he thinks that his conduct should be in a such a manner, where he contemplates each aspect and thing, until he comprehends it and it is incorporated within him, in an inner manner.
Regarding his present standing – the aspect of this Shlichut – to spread the wellsprings outward - is for him a transcendent level (מקיף). He does not understand and comprehend this in his intellect, in an inner manner. Therefore (according to his rationale), he should first exert himself in Torah study, in general, and the study (of the wellsprings) of Torat HaChassidut, in particular.
And in time, when he comprehends and it is imbued in him that he must engage in the spreading of the wellsprings – then he will accept upon himself the Shlichut-mission and fulfill it in an inner manner.
On this comes the lesson from the building of the Mishkan:
The Avodah of “below”, in order that it be “erected” – that it should come to its completeness, that “the Shechinah should rest in the work of your hands” – is through bringing this to Moshe (within his soul – and through this to Moshe) of his generation.
Without this – even if he should work to erect the level of the Mishkan in his soul, this is similar to the Mishkan and its set-up during the Seven Days of Inauguration, as aforementioned, at length.
Specifically through the “bringing” – the handing and giving (המסירה ונתינה) to the eyes of the community - “Moshe” of each generation, and in our case- the fulfilling of the Shlichut in spreading the wellsprings outward, is one’s Mishkan, also built. The quality and completeness of his Avodah, with his own power, in Torah and Mitzvot and prayer - the Shechinah will rest in the work of his hands.
Through the Avodah of “may your wellsprings spread outward” will the master come – our righteous Moshiach, soon mamosh.
M’Sichas Shabbat Parshat Shemini 5725, Yud-Shvat 5732
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